1. Biochemistry and Chemical Biology
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Point of View: How open science helps researchers succeed

  1. Erin C McKiernan  Is a corresponding author
  2. Philip E Bourne
  3. C Titus Brown
  4. Stuart Buck
  5. Amye Kenall
  6. Jennifer Lin
  7. Damon McDougall
  8. Brian A Nosek
  9. Karthik Ram
  10. Courtney K Soderberg
  11. Jeffrey R Spies
  12. Kaitlin Thaney
  13. Andrew Updegrove
  14. Kara H Woo
  15. Tal Yarkoni
  1. National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico
  2. National Institutes of Health, United States
  3. University of California, Davis, United States
  4. Laura and John Arnold Foundation, United States
  5. BioMed Central, United Kingdom
  6. CrossRef, United Kingdom
  7. University of Texas at Austin, United States
  8. Center for Open Science, United States
  9. University of California, Berkeley, United States
  10. University of Virginia, United States
  11. Mozilla Foundation, United States
  12. Gesmer Updegrove LLP, United States
  13. Washington State University, United States
  14. University of Washington, United States
Feature Article
Cite as: eLife 2016;5:e16800 doi: 10.7554/eLife.16800
2 figures and 2 tables


Open access articles get more citations.

The relative citation rate (OA: non-OA) in 19 fields of research. This rate is defined as the mean citation rate of OA articles divided by the mean citation rate of non-OA articles. Multiple points for the same discipline indicate different estimates from the same study, or estimates from several studies. References by discipline: Agricultural studies (Kousha and Abdoli, 2010); Physics/astronomy (Gentil-Beccot et al., 2010; Harnad and Brody, 2004; Metcalfe, 2006); Medicine (Sahu et al., 2005; Xu et al., 2011); Computer science (Lawrence, 2001); Sociology/social sciences (Hajjem et al., 2006; Norris et al., 2008; Xu et al., 2011); Psychology (Hajjem et al., 2006); Political science (Hajjem et al., 2006; Antelman, 2004; Atchison and Bull, 2015); Management (Hajjem et al., 2006); Law (Donovan et al., 2015; Hajjem et al., 2006); Economics (Hajjem et al., 2006; McCabe and Snyder, 2015; Norris et al., 2008; Wohlrabe, 2014); Mathematics (Antelman, 2004; Davis and Fromerth, 2007; Norris et al., 2008); Health (Hajjem et al., 2006); Engineering (Antelman, 2004; Koler-Povh et al., 2014); Philosophy (Antelman, 2004); Education (Hajjem et al., 2006; Zawacki-Richter et al., 2010); Business (Hajjem et al., 2006; McCabe and Snyder, 2015); Communication studies (Zhang, 2006); Ecology (McCabe and Snyder, 2014; Norris et al., 2008); Biology (Frandsen, 2009b; Hajjem et al., 2006; McCabe and Snyder, 2014).

Increase in open access policies.

The number of open access policies registered in ROARMAP (roarmap.eprints.org) has increased over the last decade. Data are broken down by type of organization: research organization (e.g., a university or research institution); funder; subunit of research organization (e.g. a library within a university); funder and research organization; multiple research organizations (e.g., an organization with multiple research centers, such as Max Planck Society). Figure used with permission from Stevan Harnad.



Table 1

Preprint servers and general repositories accepting preprints.

Preprint server or repository*Subject areasRepository open source?Public API?Can leave feedback?Third party persistent ID?
arXiv arxiv.orgphysics, mathematics, computer science, quantitative biology, quantitative finance, statisticsNoYesNoNo
bioRxiv biorxiv.orgbiology, life sciencesNoNoYesYes (DOI)
CERN document server cds.cern.chhigh-energy physicsYes (GPL)YesNoNo
Cogprints cogprints.orgpsychology, neuroscience, linguistics, computer science, philosophy, biologyNoYesNoNo
EconStor econstor.eueconomicsNoYesNoYes (Handle)
e-LiS eprints.rclis.orglibrary and information sciencesNo§YesNoYes (Handle)
figshare figshare.comgeneral repository for all disciplinesNoYesYesYes (DOI)
Munich Personal RePEc Archive mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.deeconomicsNoYesNoNo
Open Science Framework osf.iogeneral repository for all disciplinesYes (Apache 2)YesYesYes (DOI/ARK)
PeerJ Preprints peerj.com/archives-preprintsbiological, life, medical, and computer sciencesNoYesYesYes (DOI)
PhilSci Archive philsci-archive.pitt.eduphilosophy of scienceNo**YesNoNo
Self-Journal of Science www.sjscience.orggeneral repository for all disciplinesNoNoYesNo
Social Science Research Network ssrn.comsocial sciences and humanitiesNoNoYesYes (DOI)
The Winnower thewinnower.comgeneral repository for all disciplinesNoNoYesYes (DOI)††
Zenodo zenodo.orggeneral repository for all disciplinesYes (GPLv2)YesNoYes (DOI)
  1. * All these servers and repositories are indexed by Google Scholar.

  2. Most, if not all, of those marked ’Yes’ require some type of login or registration to leave comments.

  3. arXiv provides internally managed persistent identifiers.

  4. § e-LiS is built on open source software (EPrints), but the repository itself, including modifications to the code, plugins, etc. is not open source.

  5. MPRA is built on open source software (EPrints), but the repository itself, including modifications to the code, plugins, etc. is not open source.

  6. ** PhilSci Archive is built on open source software (EPrints), but the repository itself, including modifications to the code, plugins, etc. is not open source.

  7. †† The Winnower charges a $25 fee to assign a DOI.

Table 2

Special funding opportunities for open research, training, and advocacy.

Shuttleworth Foundation Fellowship Programfunding for researchers working openly on diverse problemsshuttleworthfoundation.org/fellows/
Mozilla Fellowship for Sciencefunding for researchers interested in open data and open sourcewww.mozillascience.org/fellows
Leamer-Rosenthal Prizes for Open Social Science (UC Berkeley and John Templeton Foundation)rewards social scientists for open research and education practiceswww.bitss.org/prizes/leamer-rosenthal-prizes/
OpenCon Travel Scholarship (Right to Research Coalition and SPARC)funding for students and early-career researchers to attend OpenCon, and receive training in open practices and advocacywww.opencon2016.org/
Preregistration Challenge (Center for Open Science)prizes for researchers who publish the results of a preregistered studycos.io/prereg/
Open Science Prize (Wellcome Trust, NIH, and HHMI)funding to develop services, tools, and platforms that will increase openness in biomedical researchwww.openscienceprize.org/

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