(A) A traditional “pipeline” view of faculty hiring. A fraction of the total stock of PhD graduates pursues faculty positions, and thus become candidates on the market. Candidates on the market are composed primarily of the subset of postdoctoral scientists pursuing faculty careers in medical school basic science departments but can include those who have non-traditional career paths such as the rare PhD student who proceeds directly to the faculty job market. Each year, candidates on the market are hired into the stock of assistant professors at a rate equal to the total number of slots available (“slots available”), and candidates who are not hired remain in the pool conditional on hiring probability (“market dropout”). After six years, assistant professors leave the system (either via promotion or contract termination, “Assistant Professor Tenure or Leave”). Boxes represent stocks (quantities), hourglasses represent flows (rates; writing italicized), variables are bolded, blue arrows represent causal connections between factors, and clouds represent system boundaries (B) Intermediate conceptual model. The pool of PhD graduates is separated into two groups: those who will pursue and enter faculty positions in research-intensive environments (“Faculty Aspire”), and those who will pursue other career interests (“Other Aspire”). All “Faculty Aspire” graduates enter the academic job market (“Candidates on the Market”) and remain based on hiring probability, while the “Other Aspire” scientists depart the system. As the total number of PhD graduates grows (“Baseline PhD Graduate Growth Rate”), the populations of “Faculty Aspire” and “Other Aspire” graduates are expected to grow equally (i.e. they maintain the same, fixed proportions with respect to one another). Initial populations (P0) of “Faculty Aspire” and “Other Aspire” candidates represent scaling factors that, together with the baseline growth rate, produce the number of PhD graduates in each stock. Candidates on the market are hired into the stock of assistant professors at a rate equal to the total number of slots available, and then depart the system six years later. (C) Elaborated model of faculty hiring for PhD scientists from WR and URM backgrounds with intervention to enhance workforce diversity. The career pathways of URM and WR scientists are conceptualized as independent, but are linked with respect to assistant professor hiring by the number of assistant professor slots available. URM and WR candidates are hired based on the number of slots available, and in proportion to their representation on the market (hence the influence of WR candidates on the URM hiring rate and vice versa). That is, the model posits no bias in hiring. In addition to baseline growth, the variable “URM Target Growth Rate” represents efforts from the scientific community to enhance workforce diversity. These additional URM scientists are initially added to the “URM other aspire” stock. The “transition rate” represents the percentage of URM other aspire scientists that enter the faculty market. As this rate increases, more URM candidates enter the academic job market. Candidates hired leave the system after six years, and the initial populations (P0) are derived from empirical data as described in methods.