1. Ecology
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Experimental and observational studies find contrasting responses of soil nutrients to climate change

  1. ZY Yuan  Is a corresponding author
  2. F Jiao  Is a corresponding author
  3. XR Shi
  4. Jordi Sardans
  5. Fernando T Maestre
  6. Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo
  7. Peter B Reich
  8. Josep Peñuelas
  1. Northwest A&F University, China
  2. Chinese Academy of Science and Ministry of Water Resource, China
  3. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Spain
  4. CREAF, Spain
  5. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain
  6. University of Colorado, Colorado
  7. University of Western Sydney, Australia
  8. University of Minnesota, United States
Research Article
Cite this article as: eLife 2017;6:e23255 doi: 10.7554/eLife.23255
7 figures, 1 table and 1 additional file

Figures

Map of the experimental and observational sites used in our analyses.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23255.002
Figure 2 with 1 supplement
Responses of soil (a) C, (b) N, and (c) P concentrations to wetting by using response ratios in manipulative experiments and slopes in precipitation gradient observations.

Symbols with error bars show the mean response ratios or slopes with 95% confidence intervals. Plus (+) and minus (–) signs represent positive and negative means, respectively. Green symbols are positive and red symbols are negative means whose confidence intervals do not include zero. ‘Multiple’ indicates results from studies conducted across an environmental gradient for multiple types of ecosystems or soils. Manipulative experiments are on the left and gradient observations are on the right of each panel. Numbers indicate the number of studies used in each case.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23255.003
Figure 2—figure supplement 2
Response of soil C:N, C:P and N:P to precipitation, temperature and aridity in manipulative experiments (a) and gradient observations (b).

Aridity is defined as 1–AI, where AI, the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration, is the aridity index. Symbols with error bars show the mean response ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Symbols are colored according to significant differences. Green symbols with a plus sign (+) and pink symbols with a minus sign (–) represent positive and negative differences, respectively. Due to limited sample size, we do not present differences among ecosystem or soil types.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23255.004
Responses of soil (a) C, (b) N, and (c) P concentrations to drying by using response ratios in manipulative drought experiments and slopes in aridity gradient observations.

Aridity is defined as [maximum AI in the data set – AI], where AI is the aridity index, the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Same symbols and explanations as in Figure 2.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23255.005
Responses of soil (a) C, (b) N, and (c) P concentrations to warming by using response ratios in manipulative temperature experiments and slopes in temperature gradient observations.

Same symbols and explanations as in Figure 2.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23255.006
Results of regression analysis for the response ratio (lnRR) in relation to mean annual precipitation and temperature in manipulative experiments of study sites.

Details of the fitted models are given within each panel.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23255.007
Results of regression analysis for the soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations in relation to gradients of mean annual precipitation, aridity and temperature in observational studies.

Details of the fitted models are given within each panel. Aridity is defined as [maximum AI in the data set – AI], where AI is the aridity index, the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23255.008
Results of regressionanalyses for the soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations with gradients of mean annual precipitation, aridity and temperature using the controls from experiments.

Details of the fitted models are given within each panel. Aridity is defined as [maximum AI in the data set – AI], where AI is the aridity index, the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23255.009

Tables

Table 1

R2 values of multiple regression analyses of soil carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations for the observational studies. Abbreviations: T, mean annual temperature; P, mean annual precipitation; A, aridity; S, FAO soil classification; E, type of ecosystem. Letter combinations indicate which explanatory terms are included in a model. Values in bold indicate significant effects (p<0.05).

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23255.010
[C][N][P]
T0.0510.0120.018
P0.2220.0610.007
A0.3190.1810.001
S0.3340.1790.107
E0.4200.2150.158
TP0.3420.1900.035
TA0.3310.2010.070
TS0.4940.2520.248
TE0.5090.2880.285
PA0.3860.2130.018
PS0.5620.2300.166
PE0.5100.2700.156
AS0.4920.3490.212
AE0.5140.3400.261
SE0.7000.3500.359
TPA0.4240.2850.115
TPS0.6850.3490.322
TPE0.5830.3580.322
TAS0.5690.4500.361
TAE0.5660.4460.374
TSE0.7580.4110.484
PAS0.5640.4180.256
PAE0.5770.4320.307
PSE0.7430.4090.418
ASE0.6710.5540.479
TPAS0.6210.5110.469
TPAE0.6170.5420.434
TPSE0.7990.4930.562
TASE0.7300.6680.582
PASE0.7260.6320.542
TPASE0.7710.7270.629

Additional files

Supplementary file 1

Supplementary references.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23255.011

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