1. Ecology
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No general relationship between mass and temperature in endothermic species

  1. Kristina Riemer Is a corresponding author
  2. Robert P Guralnick
  3. Ethan P White
  1. University of Florida, United States
Research Article
Cite as: eLife 2018;7:e27166 doi: 10.7554/eLife.27166
5 figures, 5 data sets and 1 additional file

Figures

Figure 1 with 12 supplements
Species spatial distributions and selected temperature-mass relationships.

(A) Spatial collection locations of all individual specimens. All species shown with black points except three species, whose relationships between mean annual temperature and mass are shown at bottom (B–D), are marked with colored points. These species were chosen to represent the range of variability in relationship strength and direction exhibited by the 952 species from the study: Martes pennanti had a negative relationship with temperature explaining a substantial amount of variation in mass (B; blue points); Tamias quadrivittatus had no directional relationship between temperature and mass with temperature having little explanatory power (C; yellow points); Synaptomys cooperi had a strong positive temperature-mass relationship with a correlation coefficient (r) in the 99th percentile of all species' values (D; red points). Intraspecific temperature-mass relationships are shown with black circles for all individuals and ordinary least squares regression trends as blue lines. Linear regression correlation coefficients and p-values in upper left hand corner of figure for each species. For remaining species relationships, see Figure 1—figure supplement 112.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.003
Figure 1—figure supplement 1
Species’ temperature-mass relationships.

Plots of temperature-mass relationships for 80 of the 952 species. Grey points are individuals and black lines show ordinary least squares linear regression of relationships. Ranges of both mass and temperature axes vary depending on species. Species names with corresponding plot numbers: (1) Abrothrix olivaceus, (2) Acanthis flammea, (3) Accipiter cooperii, (4) Accipiter gentilis, (5) Accipiter striatus, (6) Acridotheres tristis, (7) Actitis macularia, (8) Aechmophorus clarkii, (9) Aechmophorus occidentalis, (10) Aegithalos caudatus, (11) Aegolius acadicus, (12) Aegolius funereus, (13) Aeronautes saxatalis, (14) Agelaius phoeniceus, (15) Agelaius tricolor, (16) Aimophila carpalis, (17) Aimophila cassinii, (18) Aimophila rufescens, (19) Aimophila ruficeps, (20) Aix sponsa, (21) Alauda arvensis, (22) Alcedo quadribrachys, (23) Alethe diademata, (24) Alethe poliocephala, (25) Alle alle, (26) Amazilia beryllina, (27) Amazilia cyanocephala, (28) Amazilia rutila, (29) Ammodramus caudacutus, (30) Ammodramus henslowii, (31) Ammodramus humeralis, (32) Ammodramus sandwichensis, (33) Ammodramus savannarum, (34) Ammospermophilus leucurus, (35) Amphispiza belli, (36) Amphispiza bilineata, (37) Anas acuta, (38) Anas americana, (39) Anas clypeata, (40) Anas crecca, (41) Anas cyanoptera, (42) Anas discors, (43) Anas platyrhynchos, (44) Anas rubripes, (45) Anas strepera, (46) Anoura geoffroyi, (47) Anser albifrons, (48) Anser caerulescens, (49) Anthreptes collaris, (50) Anthreptes rectirostris, (51) Anthus hodgsoni, (52) Anthus rubescens, (53) Anthus spinoletta, (54) Anthus trivialis, (55) Antrozous pallidus, (56) Apalis flavida, (57) Apalis thoracica, (58) Aphelocoma californica, (59) Aphelocoma coerulescens, (60) Aphelocoma ultramarina, (61) Aplodontia rufa, (62) Apodemus agrarius, (63) Apodemus peninsulae, (64) Apodemus uralensis, (65) Aquila chrysaetos, (66) Archilochus alexandri, (67) Archilochus colubris, (68) Ardea alba, (69) Ardea herodias, (70) Arenaria interpres, (71) Artibeus jamaicensis, (72) Artibeus lituratus, (73) Artibeus toltecus, (74) Asio flammeus, (75) Asio otus, (76) Athene cunicularia, (77) Attila spadiceus, (78) Aulacorhynchus prasinus, (79) Auriparus flaviceps, (80) Automolus ochrolaemus.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.004
Figure 1—figure supplement 2
Species’ temperature-mass relationships.

Plots of temperature-mass relationships for 80 of the 952 species. Grey points are individuals and black lines show ordinary least squares linear regression of relationships. Ranges of both mass and temperature axes vary depending on species. Species names with corresponding plot numbers: (81) Aythya affinis, (82) Aythya americana, (83) Aythya collaris, (84) Aythya marila, (85) Aythya valisineria, (86) Baeolophus bicolor, (87) Baeolophus inornatus, (88) Baeolophus ridgwayi, (89) Baeolophus wollweberi, (90) Baiomys taylori, (91) Bartramia longicauda, (92) Basileuterus culicivorus, (93) Basileuterus rufifrons, (94) Batis molitor, (95) Blarina brevicauda, (96) Bleda syndactyla, (97) Bombycilla cedrorum, (98) Bombycilla garrulus, (99) Bonasa umbellus, (100) Botaurus lentiginosus, (101) Brachyramphus marmoratus, (102) Branta canadensis, (103) Bubo virginianus, (104) Bucephala albeola, (105) Bucephala clangula, (106) Buteo jamaicensis, (107) Buteo lagopus, (108) Buteo lineatus, (109) Buteo magnirostris, (110) Buteo platypterus, (111) Buteo swainsoni, (112) Butorides virescens, (113) Calamospiza melanocorys, (114) Calcarius lapponicus, (115) Calcarius ornatus, (116) Calcarius pictus, (117) Calidris acuminata, (118) Calidris alba, (119) Calidris alpina, (120) Calidris bairdii, (121) Calidris canutus, (122) Calidris fuscicollis, (123) Calidris mauri, (124) Calidris melanotos, (125) Calidris minutilla, (126) Calidris ptilocnemis, (127) Calidris pusilla, (128) Callipepla californica, (129) Callipepla gambelii, (130) Callospermophilus lateralis, (131) Calocitta formosa, (132) Calypte anna, (133) Calypte costae, (134) Camaroptera brachyura, (135) Camaroptera chloronota, (136) Campethera caroli, (137) Campethera nivosa, (138) Camptostoma obsoletum, (139) Campylopterus largipennis, (140) Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, (141) Campylorhynchus rufinucha, (142) Campylorhynchus zonatus, (143) Canis latrans, (144) Canis lupus, (145) Caprimulgus vociferus, (146) Cardellina rubrifrons, (147) Cardinalis cardinalis, (148) Cardinalis sinuatus, (149) Carduelis flammea, (150) Carduelis hornemanni, (151) Carduelis lawrencei, (152) Carduelis pinus, (153) Carduelis psaltria, (154) Carduelis tristis, (155) Carollia brevicauda, (156) Carollia castanea, (157) Carollia perspicillata, (158) Carpodacus cassinii, (159) Carpodacus mexicanus, (160) Carpodacus purpureus.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.005
Figure 1—figure supplement 3
Species’ temperature-mass relationships.

Plots of temperature-mass relationships for 80 of the 952 species. Grey points are individuals and black lines show ordinary least squares linear regression of relationships. Ranges of both mass and temperature axes vary depending on species. Species names with corresponding plot numbers: (161) Castor canadensis, (162) Cathartes aura, (163) Catharus aurantiirostris, (164) Catharus fuscescens, (165) Catharus guttatus, (166) Catharus minimus, (167) Catharus occidentalis, (168) Catharus ustulatus, (169) Catherpes mexicanus, (170) Catoptrophorus semipalmatus, (171) Centrocercus urophasianus, (172) Cercomacra tyrannina, (173) Certhia americana, (174) Certhia familiaris, (175) Ceryle alcyon, (176) Ceyx picta, (177) Chaetodipus fallax, (178) Chaetodipus formosus, (179) Chaetodipus intermedius, (180) Chaetodipus penicillatus, (181) Chaetura pelagica, (182) Chaetura vauxi, (183) Chamaea fasciata, (184) Charadrius alexandrinus, (185) Charadrius dubius, (186) Charadrius melodus, (187) Charadrius montanus, (188) Charadrius semipalmatus, (189) Charadrius vociferus, (190) Chen caerulescens, (191) Chiroderma villosum, (192) Chlidonias niger, (193) Chloroceryle americana, (194) Chlorocichla flaviventris, (195) Chlorophanes spiza, (196) Chlorospingus ophthalmicus, (197) Chondestes grammacus, (198) Chordeiles acutipennis, (199) Chordeiles minor, (200) Chrysococcyx cupreus, (201) Chrysococcyx klaas, (202) Cinclus mexicanus, (203) Circus cyaneus, (204) Cisticola erythrops, (205) Cisticola galactotes, (206) Cistothorus palustris, (207) Cistothorus platensis, (208) Clangula hyemalis, (209) Clethrionomys gapperi, (210) Coccothraustes vespertinus, (211) Coccyzus americanus, (212) Coccyzus erythropthalmus, (213) Coereba flaveola, (214) Colaptes auratus, (215) Colinus cristatus, (216) Colinus virginianus, (217) Colius striatus, (218) Collocalia esculenta, (219) Columba fasciata, (220) Columba livia, (221) Columbina inca, (222) Columbina passerina, (223) Columbina talpacoti, (224) Contopus borealis, (225) Contopus cinereus, (226) Contopus cooperi, (227) Contopus pertinax, (228) Contopus sordidulus, (229) Contopus virens, (230) Corvus brachyrhynchos, (231) Corvus corax, (232) Corynorhinus townsendii, (233) Cossypha caffra, (234) Cossypha heuglini, (235) Cossypha natalensis, (236) Cossypha niveicapilla, (237) Coturnicops noveboracensis, (238) Criniger calurus, (239) Crotophaga ani, (240) Crotophaga sulcirostris.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.006
Figure 1—figure supplement 4
Species’ temperature-mass relationships.

Plots of temperature-mass relationships for 80 of the 952 species. Grey points are individuals and black lines show ordinary least squares linear regression of relationships. Ranges of both mass and temperature axes vary depending on species. Species names with corresponding plot numbers: (241) Cryptotis parva, (242) Cyanerpes cyaneus, (243) Cyanocitta cristata, (244) Cyanocitta stelleri, (245) Cyanocompsa cyanoides, (246) Cyanocompsa parellina, (247) Cyanocorax morio, (248) Cyanocorax yncas, (249) Cyanomitra olivacea, (250) Cyclarhis gujanensis, (251) Cygnus columbianus, (252) Cynopterus brachyotis, (253) Cynopterus sphinx, (254) Cyrtonyx montezumae, (255) Dacnis cayana, (256) Dendragapus canadensis, (257) Dendragapus obscurus, (258) Dendrocincla fuliginosa, (259) Dendrocincla homochroa, (260) Dendrocolaptes certhia, (261) Dendroica caerulescens, (262) Dendroica castanea, (263) Dendroica coronata, (264) Dendroica discolor, (265) Dendroica dominica, (266) Dendroica fusca, (267) Dendroica graciae, (268) Dendroica magnolia, (269) Dendroica nigrescens, (270) Dendroica occidentalis, (271) Dendroica palmarum, (272) Dendroica pensylvanica, (273) Dendroica petechia, (274) Dendroica pinus, (275) Dendroica striata, (276) Dendroica tigrina, (277) Dendroica townsendi, (278) Dendroica virens, (279) Dendropicos fuscescens, (280) Desmodus rotundus, (281) Dicrostonyx groenlandicus, (282) Didelphis marsupialis, (283) Didelphis virginiana, (284) Dipodomys agilis, (285) Dipodomys merriami, (286) Dipodomys ordii, (287) Dipodomys panamintinus, (288) Dolichonyx oryzivorus, (289) Dryocopus lineatus, (290) Dryocopus pileatus, (291) Dryoscopus cubla, (292) Dumetella carolinensis, (293) Dysithamnus mentalis, (294) Egretta thula, (295) Elaenia flavogaster, (296) Elanus leucurus, (297) Emberiza aureola, (298) Emberiza spodocephala, (299) Empidonax alnorum, (300) Empidonax difficilis, (301) Empidonax flavescens, (302) Empidonax flaviventris, (303) Empidonax fulvifrons, (304) Empidonax hammondii, (305) Empidonax minimus, (306) Empidonax oberholseri, (307) Empidonax occidentalis, (308) Empidonax traillii, (309) Empidonax virescens, (310) Empidonax wrightii, (311) Enhydra lutris, (312) Eptesicus fuscus, (313) Eremophila alpestris, (314) Erethizon dorsatum, (315) Erithacus rubecula, (316) Eucometis penicillata, (317) Eugenes fulgens, (318) Euphagus carolinus, (319) Euphagus cyanocephalus, (320) Euphonia hirundinacea.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.007
Figure 1—figure supplement 5
Species’ temperature-mass relationships.

Plots of temperature-mass relationships for 80 of the 952 species. Grey points are individuals and black lines show ordinary least squares linear regression of relationships. Ranges of both mass and temperature axes vary depending on species. Species names with corresponding plot numbers: (321) Euplectes albonotatus, (322) Euplectes ardens, (323) Euplectes capensis, (324) Euplectes franciscanus, (325) Euplectes hordeaceus, (326) Eurillas virens, (327) Falcipennis canadensis, (328) Falco columbarius, (329) Falco mexicanus, (330) Falco peregrinus, (331) Falco sparverius, (332) Falco tinnunculus, (333) Ficedula hyperythra, (334) Florisuga mellivora, (335) Formicarius analis, (336) Formicivora grisea, (337) Fringilla coelebs, (338) Fulica americana, (339) Fulmarus glacialis, (340) Galerida cristata, (341) Gallinago delicata, (342) Gallinago gallinago, (343) Gallinula chloropus, (344) Gavia immer, (345) Gavia stellata, (346) Geococcyx californianus, (347) Geomys bursarius, (348) Geothlypis agilis, (349) Geothlypis philadelphia, (350) Geothlypis poliocephala, (351) Geothlypis trichas, (352) Glaucidium brasilianum, (353) Glaucidium gnoma, (354) Glaucomys sabrinus, (355) Glaucomys volans, (356) Glossophaga soricina, (357) Glyphorhynchus spirurus, (358) Glyphorynchus spirurus, (359) Grus canadensis, (360) Guiraca caerulea, (361) Gulo gulo, (362) Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, (363) Habia fuscicauda, (364) Habia rubica, (365) Haematopus ostralegus, (366) Halcyon malimbica, (367) Helmitheros vermivorus, (368) Henicorhina leucophrys, (369) Henicorhina leucosticta, (370) Heteromys desmarestianus, (371) Himantopus mexicanus, (372) Hipposideros ruber, (373) Hirundo pyrrhonota, (374) Hirundo rustica, (375) Histrionicus histrionicus, (376) Hylia prasina, (377) Hylocharis leucotis, (378) Hylocichla mustelina, (379) Hylophilus decurtatus, (380) Hypocnemis cantator, (381) Hypothymis azurea, (382) Icteria virens, (383) Icterus bullockii, (384) Icterus cucullatus, (385) Icterus dominicensis, (386) Icterus galbula, (387) Icterus parisorum, (388) Icterus pustulatus, (389) Icterus spurius, (390) Indicator exilis, (391) Indicator minor, (392) Ixobrychus exilis, (393) Ixoreus naevius, (394) Junco hyemalis, (395) Junco phaeonotus, (396) Lagonosticta senegala, (397) Lagopus lagopus, (398) Lagopus mutus, (399) Laniarius ferrugineus, (400) Lanius collaris.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.008
Figure 1—figure supplement 6
Species’ temperature-mass relationships.

Plots of temperature-mass relationships for 80 of the 952 species. Grey points are individuals and black lines show ordinary least squares linear regression of relationships. Ranges of both mass and temperature axes vary depending on species. Species names with corresponding plot numbers: (401) Lanius collurio, (402) Lanius cristatus, (403) Lanius excubitor, (404) Lanius ludovicianus, (405) Larus argentatus, (406) Larus californicus, (407) Larus canus, (408) Larus delawarensis, (409) Larus glaucescens, (410) Larus heermanni, (411) Larus hyperboreus, (412) Larus occidentalis, (413) Larus philadelphia, (414) Lasionycteris noctivagans, (415) Lasiurus borealis, (416) Lasiurus cinereus, (417) Lathrotriccus euleri, (418) Lemmiscus curtatus, (419) Lemmus sibiricus, (420) Lemmus trimucronatus, (421) Lepidocolaptes affinis, (422) Lepidocolaptes souleyetii, (423) Leptotila rufaxilla, (424) Leptotila verreauxi, (425) Lepus americanus, (426) Lepus californicus, (427) Lepus othus, (428) Leucosticte arctoa, (429) Leucosticte atrata, (430) Leucosticte australis, (431) Leucosticte tephrocotis, (432) Limnodromus griseus, (433) Limnodromus scolopaceus, (434) Limosa fedoa, (435) Limosa lapponica, (436) Liomys pictus, (437) Lontra canadensis, (438) Lophodytes cucullatus, (439) Loxia curvirostra, (440) Loxia leucoptera, (441) Lynx canadensis, (442) Lynx rufus, (443) Macronous gularis, (444) Malimbus malimbicus, (445) Manacus candei, (446) Manacus manacus, (447) Marmota caligata, (448) Marmota flaviventris, (449) Marmota monax, (450) Martes americana, (451) Martes pennanti, (452) Mastomys natalensis, (453) Megaceryle alcyon, (454) Megascops asio, (455) Megascops kennicottii, (456) Melanerpes aurifrons, (457) Melanerpes carolinus, (458) Melanerpes erythrocephalus, (459) Melanerpes formicivorus, (460) Melanerpes lewis, (461) Melanerpes uropygialis, (462) Melanitta fusca, (463) Melanitta perspicillata, (464) Meleagris gallopavo, (465) Melospiza georgiana, (466) Melospiza lincolnii, (467) Melospiza melodia, (468) Mergus merganser, (469) Mergus serrator, (470) Merops pusillus, (471) Micrathene whitneyi, (472) Microtus californicus, (473) Microtus longicaudus, (474) Microtus miurus, (475) Microtus montanus, (476) Microtus ochrogaster, (477) Microtus oeconomus, (478) Microtus oregoni, (479) Microtus pennsylvanicus, (480) Microtus pinetorum.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.009
Figure 1—figure supplement 7
Species’ temperature-mass relationships.

Plots of temperature-mass relationships for 80 of the 952 species. Grey points are individuals and black lines show ordinary least squares linear regression of relationships. Ranges of both mass and temperature axes vary depending on species. Species names with corresponding plot numbers: (481) Microtus richardsoni, (482) Microtus xanthognathus, (483) Mimus polyglottos, (484) Mionectes oleagineus, (485) Mitrephanes phaeocercus, (486) Mniotilta varia, (487) Molossus molossus, (488) Molothrus aeneus, (489) Molothrus ater, (490) Molothrus bonariensis, (491) Momotus momota, (492) Motacilla alba, (493) Motacilla cinerea, (494) Motacilla flava, (495) Mus musculus, (496) Muscicapa adusta, (497) Muscicapa caerulescens, (498) Muscicapa striata, (499) Mustela erminea, (500) Mustela frenata, (501) Mustela nivalis, (502) Mustela vison, (503) Myadestes townsendi, (504) Myiarchus cinerascens, (505) Myiarchus crinitus, (506) Myiarchus tuberculifer, (507) Myiarchus tyrannulus, (508) Myiobius barbatus, (509) Myioborus miniatus, (510) Myioborus pictus, (511) Myiodynastes luteiventris, (512) Myiodynastes maculatus, (513) Myiopagis viridicata, (514) Myioparus griseigularis, (515) Myiophobus fasciatus, (516) Myiozetetes similis, (517) Myodes gapperi, (518) Myodes glareolus, (519) Myodes rufocanus, (520) Myodes rutilus, (521) Myotis californicus, (522) Myotis evotis, (523) Myotis lucifugus, (524) Myotis volans, (525) Myotis yumanensis, (526) Myrmoborus leucophrys, (527) Myrmotherula axillaris, (528) Napaeozapus insignis, (529) Natalus stramineus, (530) Nectarinia famosa, (531) Nectarinia olivacea, (532) Nectarinia senegalensis, (533) Nectarinia venusta, (534) Neocossyphus poensis, (535) Neotoma albigula, (536) Neotoma cinerea, (537) Neotoma fuscipes, (538) Neotoma lepida, (539) Neotoma mexicana, (540) Neotoma stephensi, (541) Neovison vison, (542) Neurotrichus gibbsii, (543) Nicator chloris, (544) Noctilio leporinus, (545) Notiosorex crawfordi, (546) Nucifraga columbiana, (547) Numenius americanus, (548) Numenius phaeopus, (549) Nyctea scandiaca, (550) Nycticorax nycticorax, (551) Nyctidromus albicollis, (552) Oceanodroma furcata, (553) Ochotona collaris, (554) Ochotona princeps, (555) Ochrotomys nuttalli, (556) Oenanthe isabellina, (557) Oenanthe oenanthe, (558) Oligoryzomys fulvescens, (559) Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, (560) Ondatra zibethicus.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.010
Figure 1—figure supplement 8
Species’ temperature-mass relationships.

Plots of temperature-mass relationships for 80 of the 952 species. Grey points are individuals and black lines show ordinary least squares linear regression of relationships. Ranges of both mass and temperature axes vary depending on species. Species names with corresponding plot numbers: (561) Onychomys leucogaster, (562) Onychomys torridus, (563) Oporornis agilis, (564) Oporornis formosus, (565) Oporornis philadelphia, (566) Oporornis tolmiei, (567) Oreortyx pictus, (568) Oreoscoptes montanus, (569) Ortalis vetula, (570) Oryzomys palustris, (571) Otus asio, (572) Otus flammeolus, (573) Oxyura jamaicensis, (574) Pachycephala pectoralis, (575) Pachyramphus aglaiae, (576) Pachyramphus polychopterus, (577) Pandion haliaetus, (578) Parascalops breweri, (579) Parula americana, (580) Parus atricapillus, (581) Parus bicolor, (582) Parus carolinensis, (583) Parus gambeli, (584) Parus hudsonicus, (585) Parus major, (586) Parus monticolus, (587) Passer domesticus, (588) Passer griseus, (589) Passer montanus, (590) Passerculus sandwichensis, (591) Passerella iliaca, (592) Passerina amoena, (593) Passerina caerulea, (594) Passerina ciris, (595) Passerina cyanea, (596) Pelecanus occidentalis, (597) Perdix perdix, (598) Periparus ater, (599) Perisoreus canadensis, (600) Perognathus flavescens, (601) Perognathus flavus, (602) Perognathus longimembris, (603) Perognathus parvus, (604) Peromyscus boylii, (605) Peromyscus californicus, (606) Peromyscus eremicus, (607) Peromyscus gossypinus, (608) Peromyscus keeni, (609) Peromyscus leucopus, (610) Peromyscus maniculatus, (611) Peromyscus mexicanus, (612) Peromyscus nasutus, (613) Peromyscus polionotus, (614) Peromyscus truei, (615) Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, (616) Peucedramus taeniatus, (617) Phaethornis bourcieri, (618) Phaethornis superciliosus, (619) Phainopepla nitens, (620) Phalacrocorax auritus, (621) Phalacrocorax pelagicus, (622) Phalacrocorax penicillatus, (623) Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, (624) Phalaropus fulicarius, (625) Phalaropus lobatus, (626) Phalaropus tricolor, (627) Phasianus colchicus, (628) Phenacomys intermedius, (629) Pheucticus ludovicianus, (630) Pheucticus melanocephalus, (631) Phoca largha, (632) Phoca vitulina, (633) Phoeniculus purpureus, (634) Phoenicurus auroreus, (635) Phyllastrephus albigularis, (636) Phyllastrephus icterinus, (637) Phyllastrephus terrestris, (638) Phylloscopus borealis, (639) Phylloscopus trochilus, (640) Phyllostomus discolor.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.011
Figure 1—figure supplement 9
Species’ temperature-mass relationships.

Plots of temperature-mass relationships for 80 of the 952 species. Grey points are individuals and black lines show ordinary least squares linear regression of relationships. Ranges of both mass and temperature axes vary depending on species. Species names with corresponding plot numbers: (641) Phyllostomus hastatus, (642) Piaya cayana, (643) Pica hudsonia, (644) Pica Pica, (645) Picoides albolarvatus, (646) Picoides arcticus, (647) Picoides nuttallii, (648) Picoides pubescens, (649) Picoides scalaris, (650) Picoides tridactylus, (651) Picoides villosus, (652) Piculus rubiginosus, (653) Pinicola enucleator, (654) Pipilo aberti, (655) Pipilo chlorurus, (656) Pipilo crissalis, (657) Pipilo erythrophthalmus, (658) Pipilo fuscus, (659) Pipilo maculatus, (660) Pipistrellus hesperus, (661) Pipra erythrocephala, (662) Pipra fasciicauda, (663) Pipra mentalis, (664) Pipra pipra, (665) Piranga flava, (666) Piranga ludoviciana, (667) Piranga olivacea, (668) Piranga rubra, (669) Pitangus sulphuratus, (670) Platycercus zonarius, (671) Plectrophenax nivalis, (672) Plegadis chihi, (673) Ploceus cucullatus, (674) Ploceus melanocephalus, (675) Ploceus nigerrimus, (676) Ploceus nigricollis, (677) Ploceus ocularis, (678) Ploceus velatus, (679) Ploceus xanthops, (680) Pluvialis dominica, (681) Pluvialis squatarola, (682) Podiceps auritus, (683) Podiceps nigricollis, (684) Podilymbus podiceps, (685) Poecile atricapilla, (686) Poecile atricapillus, (687) Poecile carolinensis, (688) Poecile gambeli, (689) Poecile palustris, (690) Poecile rufescens, (691) Poecile sclateri, (692) Pogoniulus scolopaceus, (693) Pogoniulus subsulphureus, (694) Polioptila caerulea, (695) Polioptila californica, (696) Polioptila melanura, (697) Polioptila plumbea, (698) Polysticta stelleri, (699) Pooecetes gramineus, (700) Porzana carolina, (701) Prinia bairdii, (702) Prinia leucopogon, (703) Prinia subflava, (704) Prionops retzii, (705) Procyon lotor, (706) Proechimys semispinosus, (707) Progne subis, (708) Psaltriparus minimus, (709) Pteroglossus torquatus, (710) Pteronotus davyi, (711) Pteronotus parnellii, (712) Pusa hispida, (713) Pycnonotus barbatus, (714) Pyrocephalus rubinus, (715) Pyrrhula pyrrhula, (716) Pytilia melba, (717) Quelea quelea, (718) Quiscalus mexicanus, (719) Quiscalus quiscula, (720) Rallus limicola.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.012
Figure 1—figure supplement 10
Species’ temperature-mass relationships.

Plots of temperature-mass relationships for 80 of the 952 species. Grey points are individuals and black lines show ordinary least squares linear regression of relationships. Ranges of both mass and temperature axes vary depending on species. Species names with corresponding plot numbers: (721) Rallus longirostris, (722) Ramphastos sulfuratus, (723) Ramphocaenus melanurus, (724) Ramphocelus carbo, (725) Ramphocelus passerinii, (726) Rattus norvegicus, (727) Rattus rattus, (728) Recurvirostra americana, (729) Regulus calendula, (730) Regulus regulus, (731) Regulus satrapa, (732) Reithrodontomys fulvescens, (733) Reithrodontomys megalotis, (734) Riparia riparia, (735) Rissa tridactyla, (736) Saccopteryx bilineata, (737) Salpinctes obsoletus, (738) Saltator atriceps, (739) Saltator aurantiirostris, (740) Saltator coerulescens, (741) Saltator maximus, (742) Sayornis nigricans, (743) Sayornis phoebe, (744) Sayornis saya, (745) Scalopus aquaticus, (746) Scapanus orarius, (747) Schiffornis turdinus, (748) Sciurus aberti, (749) Sciurus carolinensis, (750) Sciurus niger, (751) Scolopax minor, (752) Scotinomys teguina, (753) Scotophilus kuhlii, (754) Seiurus aurocapilla, (755) Seiurus aurocapillus, (756) Seiurus motacilla, (757) Seiurus noveboracensis, (758) Selasphorus platycercus, (759) Selasphorus rufus, (760) Selasphorus sasin, (761) Serinus mozambicus, (762) Setophaga coronata, (763) Setophaga ruticilla, (764) Sialia currucoides, (765) Sialia mexicana, (766) Sialia sialis, (767) Sigmodon hispidus, (768) Sitta canadensis, (769) Sitta carolinensis, (770) Sitta europaea, (771) Sitta pusilla, (772) Sitta pygmaea, (773) Sittasomus griseicapillus, (774) Somateria spectabilis, (775) Sorex araneus, (776) Sorex arcticus, (777) Sorex cinereus, (778) Sorex fumeus, (779) Sorex hoyi, (780) Sorex monticolus, (781) Sorex ornatus, (782) Sorex palustris, (783) Sorex trowbridgii, (784) Sorex tundrensis, (785) Sorex ugyunak, (786) Sorex vagrans, (787) Spermophilus beecheyi, (788) Spermophilus columbianus, (789) Spermophilus elegans, (790) Spermophilus lateralis, (791) Spermophilus parryii, (792) Spermophilus tridecemlineatus, (793) Spermophilus variegatus, (794) Sphyrapicus nuchalis, (795) Sphyrapicus ruber, (796) Sphyrapicus thyroideus, (797) Sphyrapicus varius, (798) Spinus pinus, (799) Spiza americana, (800) Spizella arborea.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.013
Figure 1—figure supplement 11
Species’ temperature-mass relationships.

Plots of temperature-mass relationships for 80 of the 952 species. Grey points are individuals and black lines show ordinary least squares linear regression of relationships. Ranges of both mass and temperature axes vary depending on species. Species names with corresponding plot numbers: (801) Spizella breweri, (802) Spizella pallida, (803) Spizella passerina, (804) Spizella pusilla, (805) Sporophila minuta, (806) Sporophila torqueola, (807) Stelgidopteryx ruficollis, (808) Stelgidopteryx serripennis, (809) Stellula calliope, (810) Stercorarius longicaudus, (811) Stercorarius parasiticus, (812) Stercorarius pomarinus, (813) Sterna antillarum, (814) Sterna caspia, (815) Sterna forsteri, (816) Sterna hirundo, (817) Sterna paradisaea, (818) Streptopelia senegalensis, (819) Strix nebulosa, (820) Strix occidentalis, (821) Strix varia, (822) Sturnella magna, (823) Sturnella neglecta, (824) Sturnira lilium, (825) Sturnira ludovici, (826) Sturnus vulgaris, (827) Suncus murinus, (828) Sylvia atricapilla, (829) Sylvia borin, (830) Sylvietta virens, (831) Sylvilagus floridanus, (832) Synallaxis albescens, (833) Synaptomys borealis, (834) Synaptomys cooperi, (835) Tachycineta bicolor, (836) Tachycineta thalassina, (837) Tachyphonus rufus, (838) Tachyphonus surinamus, (839) Tadarida brasiliensis, (840) Tamias amoenus, (841) Tamias dorsalis, (842) Tamias minimus, (843) Tamias quadrivittatus, (844) Tamias senex, (845) Tamias speciosus, (846) Tamias striatus, (847) Tamias townsendii, (848) Tamias umbrinus, (849) Tamiasciurus douglasii, (850) Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, (851) Taraba major, (852) Tarsiger cyanurus, (853) Taxidea taxus, (854) Tchagra australis, (855) Telophorus sulfureopectus, (856) Terpsiphone rufiventer, (857) Terpsiphone viridis, (858) Thalurania furcata, (859) Thamnomanes caesius, (860) Thamnophilus caerulescens, (861) Thamnophilus doliatus, (862) Thamnophilus punctatus, (863) Thomomys bottae, (864) Thomomys talpoides, (865) Thraupis episcopus, (866) Thryomanes bewickii, (867) Thryothorus ludovicianus, (868) Thryothorus maculipectus, (869) Thryothorus pleurostictus, (870) Tityra semifasciata, (871) Todirostrum cinereum, (872) Tolmomyias sulphurescens, (873) Toxostoma cinereum, (874) Toxostoma curvirostre, (875) Toxostoma lecontei, (876) Toxostoma redivivum, (877) Toxostoma rufum, (878) Treron calva, (879) Tringa flavipes, (880) Tringa glareola.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.014
Figure 1—figure supplement 12
Species’ temperature-mass relationships.

Plots of temperature-mass relationships for 72 of the 952 species. Grey points are individuals and black lines show ordinary least squares linear regression of relationships. Ranges of both mass and temperature axes vary depending on species. Species names with corresponding plot numbers: (881) Tringa macularia, (882) Tringa melanoleuca, (883) Tringa solitaria, (884) Troglodytes aedon, (885) Troglodytes troglodytes, (886) Trogon collaris, (887) Tryngites subruficollis, (888) Turdus albicollis, (889) Turdus grayi, (890) Turdus ignobilis, (891) Turdus leucomelas, (892) Turdus merula, (893) Turdus migratorius, (894) Turtur chalcospilos, (895) Turtur tympanistria, (896) Tympanuchus cupido, (897) Tympanuchus phasianellus, (898) Tyrannus melancholicus, (899) Tyrannus tyrannus, (900) Tyrannus verticalis, (901) Tyrannus vociferans, (902) Tyto alba, (903) Uraeginthus bengalus, (904) Uria aalge, (905) Urocitellus elegans, (906) Urocitellus parryii, (907) Urocyon cinereoargenteus, (908) Uroderma bilobatum, (909) Vermivora celata, (910) Vermivora chrysoptera, (911) Vermivora peregrina, (912) Vermivora pinus, (913) Vermivora ruficapilla, (914) Vermivora virginiae, (915) Vidua chalybeata, (916) Vidua macroura, (917) Vidua purpurascens, (918) Vireo altiloquus, (919) Vireo bellii, (920) Vireo cassinii, (921) Vireo flavifrons, (922) Vireo gilvus, (923) Vireo griseus, (924) Vireo huttoni, (925) Vireo olivaceus, (926) Vireo philadelphicus, (927) Vireo solitarius, (928) Vireo vicinior, (929) Volatinia jacarina, (930) Vulpes vulpes, (931) Willisornis poecilinotus, (932) Wilsonia canadensis, (933) Wilsonia citrina, (934) Wilsonia pusilla, (935) Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, (936) Xenops minutus, (937) Xiphorhynchus flavigaster, (938) Xiphorhynchus guttatus, (939) Zapus hudsonius, (940) Zapus princeps, (941) Zapus trinotatus, (942) Zenaida asiatica, (943) Zenaida macroura, (944) Zonotrichia albicollis, (945) Zonotrichia atricapilla, (946) Zonotrichia capensis, (947) Zonotrichia georgiana, (948) Zonotrichia iliaca, (949) Zonotrichia leucophrys, (950) Zonotrichia lincolnii, (951) Zonotrichia melodia, (952) Zonotrichia querula.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.015
Figure 2 with 7 supplements
Species correlation coefficients by statistical significance and taxonomic class.

(A) Stacked histogram of correlation coefficients (r) for all species' intraspecific temperature-mass relationships. Colored bars show species with statistically significant relationships, both negative (purple) and positive (green), while white bars indicate species with relationship slopes that are not significantly different from zero. Percentages are of species in each group. (B) Stacked histogram of all species' correlation coefficients with bar color corresponding to taxonomic class. Dark vertical lines are correlation coefficients of zero. See Figure 2—figure supplements 16.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.016
Figure 2—figure supplement 1
Species z scores and z distribution.

Density plot of z scores for all species’ intraspecific temperature-mass relationships in blue, with standard normal z distribution shown with black line. Z scores were calculated from p-values corrected with false discovery rate control. Grey vertical line is z score of zero.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.017
Figure 2—figure supplement 2
Species correlation coefficients by bird migratory status.

Stacked histograms of correlation coefficients (r) from intraspecific temperature-mass relationships for (A) migrant and (B) nonmigrant bird species. Of 750 bird species, 371 migrant species and 243 nonmigrant species were identified from data requested from BirdLife International (Birdlife International, 2017); species with migratory status codes of ‘Altitudinal Migrant’, ‘Full Migrant’, and ‘Nomadic’ were reclassified as migrants and ‘Not a Migrant’ as nonmigrants. Colored bars show species with statistically significant relationships, both negative (purple) and positive (green), while white bars indicate species with relationship slopes that are not significantly different from zero. Percentages are of species in each group. Dark vertical lines are correlation coefficients of zero.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.018
Figure 2—figure supplement 3
Species correlation coefficients for latitude-mass relationships.

Results for all species' latitude-mass relationships including (A) linear regression for latitude-temperature relationships for three example species, Martes pennanti, Tamias quadrivittatus, and Synaptomys cooperi, (B) stacked histograms of all species' correlation coefficients (r) showing statistical significance of relationships and relationships by taxonomic class, and (C) variation in all species' correlation coefficients across number of individuals, collection year temperature range, mass range, mean mass, and absolute mean latitude. The latitude axes in (A) are reversed (i.e., higher latitudes to left) to correspond with temperature axes (Figures 1 and 2).

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.019
Figure 2—figure supplement 4
Species correlation coefficients for temperature-mass relationships with lifestage sensitivity analysis.

Results for all species' temperature-mass relationships with additional filtering of specimens based on lifestage. The final dataset (Figure 2A) contained a column with lifestage information for each individual, if it had been recorded. To remove all individuals explicitly identified as non-adults, we filtered that dataset to include only those individuals which had their lifestage recorded as adult, or if no lifestage information was provided. These include (A) spatial collection locations of all individual specimens and linear regression for temperature-mass relationships for three example species, Martes pennanti, Tamias quadrivittatus, and Synaptomys cooperi, (B) stacked histograms of all species' correlation coefficients (r) showing statistical significance of relationships and relationships by taxonomic class, and (C) variation in all species' correlation coefficients across number of individuals, collection year temperature range, mass range, mean mass, and absolute mean latitude.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.020
Figure 2—figure supplement 5
Species correlation coefficients for temperature-mass relationships with outlier sensitivity analysis.

Results for all species' temperature-mass relationships with outliers removed. Outliers were considered any individual mass value that was more than three standard deviations away from the fitted relationship value. These include (A) spatial collection locations for all individual specimens and linear regression for temperature-mass relationships for three example species, Martes pennanti, Tamias quadrivittatus, and Synaptomys cooperi, (B) stacked histograms of all species' correlation coefficients (r) showing statistical significance of relationships and relationships by taxonomic class, and (C) variation in all species' correlation coefficients across number of individuals, collection year temperature range, mass range, mean mass, and absolute mean latitude.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.021
Figure 2—figure supplement 6
Species correlation coefficients for temperature-mass relationships with species thresholds increased.

Results for all species’ temperature-mass relationships for species with at least 60 individuals, range in collection years of at least 40, and range in latitudinal degrees of at least 10 (n = 591). These include (A) spatial collection locations for all individual specimens and linear regression for temperature-mass relationship for an example species, Martes pennant, (B) stacked histograms of all species’ correlation coefficients (r) showing statistical significance of relationships and relationships by taxonomic class, and (C) variation in all species’ correlation coefficients across number of individuals, collection year temperature range, mass range, mean mass, and absolute mean latitude.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.022
Figure 2—figure supplement 7
Species correlation coefficients for temperature-mass relationships with species thresholds decreased.

Results for all species’ temperature-mass relationships for species with at least 15 individuals, range in collection years of at least 10, and range in latitudinal degrees of at least 2.5 (n = 1,455). These include (A) spatial collection locations for all individual specimens and linear regression for temperature-mass relationships for three example species, Martes pennant, Tamias quadrivittatus, and Synaptomys cooperi, (B) stacked histograms of all species’ correlation coefficients (r) showing statistical significance of relationships and relationships by taxonomic class, and (C) variation in all species’ correlation coefficients across number of individuals, collection year temperature range, mass range, mean mass, and absolute mean latitude.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.023
Figure 3 with 1 supplement
Species correlation coefficients for selected taxonomic orders.

Histograms of correlation coefficients (r) from intraspecific temperature-mass relationships for each taxonomic order represented by more than ten species, with order shown above histogram. Height of y-axis varies depending on number of species. Bar color indicates taxonomic class. Dark vertical lines are correlation coefficients of zero. For remaining orders, see Figure 3—figure supplement 1.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.024
Figure 3—figure supplement 1
Species correlation coefficients for remaining taxonomic orders.

Histograms of correlation coefficients (r) from intraspecific temperature-mass relationships for each taxonomic order represented by ten or fewer species, with order shown above histogram. Height of y-axis varies depending on number of species. Bar color indicates taxonomic class. Dark vertical lines are correlation coefficients of zero.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.025
Figure 4 with 1 supplement
Species correlation coefficients with selected past year temperatures.

Histograms of correlation coefficients (r) for all species' intraspecific temperature-mass relationships with mean annual temperature from (A) the year in which individuals were collected, (B) 25 years prior to collection year, and (C) 50 years prior to collection year. Dark vertical lines are correlation coefficients of zero. For all past year temperatures, see Figure 4—figure supplement 1.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.026
Figure 4—figure supplement 1
Species correlation coefficients for all past year temperatures.

Distributions of correlation coefficients (r) for all species' intraspecific temperature-mass relationships with mean annual temperature for collection year to 110 years prior to collection year. Black points show mean correlation coefficient across species for each past year of temperature.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.027
Variability of species correlation coefficients across several variables.

Variation in all species' correlation coefficients (r) across the following variables for each species: (A) number of individuals, (B) difference between hottest and coldest collection year temperatures, (C) mass range, (D) mean mass, and (E) absolute mean latitude. Horizontal lines are correlation coefficients of zero. The x-axes of some plots (A, C, D) are on a log scale to better show spread of values.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27166.028

Data sets

The following previously published data sets were used
  1. 1
    Terrestrial Air Temperature and Precipitation: Monthly and Annual Time Series (1950 - 1999) [Air Temperature Monthly Mean V3.01]
    1. Willmott CJ
    2. Matsuura K
    (2001)
    Publicly available at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory website (https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/).
  2. 2
    VertNet Amphibia
    1. Bloom D
    (2016)
    Publicly available at Data Commons (http://datacommons.cyverse.org/).
  3. 3
    VertNet Aves
    1. Bloom D
    (2016)
    Publicly available at Data Commons (http://datacommons.cyverse.org/).
  4. 4
    VertNet Mammalia
    1. Bloom D
    (2016)
    Publicly available at Data Commons (http://datacommons.cyverse.org/).
  5. 5
    VertNet Reptilia
    1. Bloom D
    (2016)
    Publicly available at Data Commons (http://datacommons.cyverse.org/).

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