(A) Lower dentition homology and positions of functionally analogous bone-cracking teeth. Jaws are scaled to the same length. (B) Macrowear data from lower first molar samples of Crocuta crocuta (Sub-Saharan Africa) (data from [DeSantis et al., 2017]), Borophagus parvus (new data based on AMNH specimens from (1) Quibiris Formation, Arizona and (2) Big Sandy Formation, Arizona), and Canis lupus (new data based on AMNH specimens from Alberta, Canada). (C) Hunter-Schreger Band (HSB) enamel microstructure patterns in the upper and lower dentitions of the three carnivorans; darker shades indicate higher degree of zig-zag HSB specialization (modified from Figure 2 from [Tseng, 2011]). (D) Morphospace of relative warp (RW) axes from a geometric morphometric analysis of fossil (shaded symbols) and extant (black symbols) canid and hyaenid cranial shape, and (E) Phylogenetic relationships of borophagine canids (top) and hyaenids (bottom) plotted onto morphometric data, with Canis indicated by black triangle. Both (D) and (E) are modified from Figure 5 from Tseng and Wang (2011). (F) von Mises stress distributions in the crania during right fourth premolar bite simulations using 3-D finite element analysis, with warmer colors indicating higher stress. Crania are scaled to the same length (modified from Figure 7 from [Tseng, 2013]).