(A) ‘Everything is everywhere, and the environment selects’ model implies that free migration is only restricted by environmental filtering. Hence, sites 1–4 have the same probability of migration, but some sites, such as one are better than others. In this case, the phylogenetic tree does not reflect the geographic structure; this is common in many cosmopolitan lineages of bacteria and fungi. (B) Model of isolation by distance, this is what occurs in most plants and animal phyla, sites that are closer (1 and 3 or 2 and 4) are more likely to present migration events than sites that far apart, some rare events of migration are allowed (as between 4 and 3). In this case, the branches of the tree reflect the geographic structure. (C) Island model implies that rare events of migration from the source, (4) to an island, such as Galapagos (1). The phylogentic tree reflects adaptive radiation due to isolation. (D) ‘Lost world model’ of ancestral isolation and diversification implies that lineages that were extinct in other places have remained as relictual niches persist in a new site (5). In this case, the ancestral lineages have very long branches that show their ancestral diversification from common ancestors.