Several universal genomic traits affect trade-offs in the capacity, cost, and efficiency of biochemical information processing underpinning metabolism and reproduction. We analyzed their role in mediating planktonic microbial community responses to nutrient enrichment in an oligotrophic, phosphorus-deficient pond in Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico—one of the first whole-ecosystem experiments involving replicated metagenomic assessment. Mean bacterial genome size, GC content, total number of tRNA genes, total number of rRNA genes, and codon usage bias in ribosomal protein sequences were higher in the fertilized treatment, as predicted assuming oligotrophy favors lower information-processing costs while copiotrophy favors higher processing rates. Contrasting changes in trait variances also suggested differences between traits in mediating assembly under copiotrophic versus oligotrophic conditions. Trade-offs in information-processing traits are apparently sufficiently pronounced to play a role in community assembly as the major components of metabolism—information, energy, and nutrient requirements—are fine-tuned to an organism's growth and trophic strategy.
Raw sequence data and metadata have been submitted to NCBI Sequence Read Archives, accessible through BioProject PRJEB22811.
Cuatro Cienegas Lagunita Fertilization ExperiementNCBI Sequence Read Archives, PRJEB22811.
- James J Elser
- James J Elser
- Janet L Siefert
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- David Donoso, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ecuador
© 2020, Okie et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Climate warming is releasing carbon from soils around the world, constituting a positive climate feedback. Warming is also causing species to expand their ranges into new ecosystems. Yet, in most ecosystems, whether range expanding species will amplify or buffer expected soil carbon loss is unknown. Here, we used two whole-community transplant experiments and a follow-up glasshouse experiment to determine whether the establishment of herbaceous lowland plants in alpine ecosystems influences soil carbon content under warming. We found that warming (transplantation to low elevation) led to a negligible decrease in alpine soil carbon content, but its effects became significant and 52% ± 31% (mean ± 95% confidence intervals) larger after lowland plants were introduced at low density into the ecosystem. We present evidence that decreases in soil carbon content likely occurred via lowland plants increasing rates of root exudation, soil microbial respiration, and CO2 release under warming. Our findings suggest that warming-induced range expansions of herbaceous plants have the potential to alter climate feedbacks from this system, and that plant range expansions among herbaceous communities may be an overlooked mediator of warming effects on carbon dynamics.
Background: The variation in the pathogen type as well as the spatial heterogeneity of predictors make the generality of any associations with pathogen discovery debatable. Our previous work confirmed that the association of a group of predictors differed across different types of RNA viruses, yet there have been no previous comparisons of the specific predictors for RNA virus discovery in different regions. The aim of the current study was to close the gap by investigating whether predictors of discovery rates within three regions-the United States, China, and Africa-differ from one another and from those at the global level.
Methods: Based on a comprehensive list of human-infective RNA viruses, we collated published data on first discovery of each species in each region. We used a Poisson boosted regression tree (BRT) model to examine the relationship between virus discovery and 33 predictors representing climate, socio-economics, land use, and biodiversity across each region separately. The discovery probability in three regions in 2010-2019 was mapped using the fitted models and historical predictors.
Results: The numbers of human-infective virus species discovered in the United States, China, and Africa up to 2019 were 95, 80 and 107 respectively, with China lagging behind the other two regions. In each region, discoveries were clustered in hotspots. BRT modelling suggested that in all three regions RNA virus discovery was better predicted by land use and socio-economic variables than climatic variables and biodiversity, though the relative importance of these predictors varied by region. Map of virus discovery probability in 2010-2019 indicated several new hotspots outside historical high-risk areas. Most new virus species since 2010 in each region (6/6 in the United States, 19/19 in China, 12/19 in Africa) were discovered in high-risk areas as predicted by our model.
Conclusions: The drivers of spatiotemporal variation in virus discovery rates vary in different regions of the world. Within regions virus discovery is driven mainly by land-use and socio-economic variables; climate and biodiversity variables are consistently less important predictors than at a global scale. Potential new discovery hotspots in 2010-2019 are identified. Results from the study could guide active surveillance for new human-infective viruses in local high-risk areas.
Funding: FFZ is funded by the Darwin Trust of Edinburgh (https://darwintrust.bio.ed.ac.uk/). MEJW has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No. 874735 (VEO) (https://www.veo-europe.eu/).