(a) Statuette inscribed with the name of King Narmer, Early Dynastic Period, 1st Dynasty, ca. 3150–3100 BC (no. ÄM 22607, reproduced with permission from the Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, 2020, under the terms of a CC0 1.0 license. (b) Bronze axe head, Middle Kingdom, 12th or 13th Dynasty, ca. 1981–1640 BC (no. 30.8.111, reproduced with permission from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2020, under the terms of a CC0 1.0 license. (c) Reliefs at the mortuary temple of Queen Hatshepsut [Deir el-Bahari]. A hamadryas baboon sits in the rigging of a ship. It is one of five being imported from Punt; New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1473–1458 BC. (d) Wall painting in the mortuary chapel of Rekhmire (TT 100), Vizier to Tuthmose III and Amenhotep II. A baboon (P. hamadryas) is shown as tribute in a procession from Nubia. Three vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops) are also illustrated, one of which climbs the neck of a beautifully rendered giraffe; New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1479–1425 BC. (e) Large 35-ton statue at Hermopolis Magna (author NJD shown for scale); erected by Amenhotep III, New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1370 BC. (f) Frieze of baboons on the east-facing facade of the rock-cut temple of Abu Simbel (g), New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1265 BC. The raised arms are interpreted as a posture of adoration toward the rising sun, whereas the open mouth may represent vocal behavior (te Velde, 1988). (h) Pectoral necklace of Tutankhamun; baboons are surmounted with lunar disks and simultaneously adoring the central solar disk, a rare combination of two stereotypical postures; New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, ca. 1341–1323 BC (no. JE 61885, Museum of Egyptian Antiquities). (i) Faience figurine and exemplary representation of Thoth: a male P. hamadryas in a seated posture, hands on knees, and surmounted by a lunar disc, Ptolemaic period, 332–30 BC (no. E 17496, Musée du Louvre).
© 2020, Rama, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0. Figure 1I is reproduced with permission from Rama, 2020, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0; this image is not distributed under the terms of the CC0 1.0 license, and further reproduction of this image panel should adhere to the terms of the CC-BY-SA 3.0 license.
© 2019, Sandro Vannini. All rights reserved. Figure 1D is reproduced with permission from Sandro Vannini, 2019; this image is not distributed under the terms of the CC0 1.0 license, and further reproduction of this image panel would need permission from the copyright holder.