The Varroa destructor mite is a devastating parasite of Apis mellifera honeybees. They can cause colonies to collapse by spreading viruses and feeding on the fat reserves of adults and larvae. Amitraz is used to control mites due to its low toxicity to bees; however, the mechanism of bee resistance to amitraz remains unknown. In this study, we found that amitraz and its major metabolite potently activated all four mite octopamine receptors. Behavioral assays using Drosophila null mutants of octopamine receptors identified one receptor subtype Octβ2R as the sole target of amitraz in vivo. We found that thermogenetic activation of octβ2R-expressing neurons mimics amitraz poisoning symptoms in target pests. We next confirmed that the mite Octβ2R was more sensitive to amitraz and its metabolite than the bee Octβ2R in pharmacological assays and transgenic flies. Furthermore, replacement of three bee-specific residues with the counterparts in the mite receptor increased amitraz sensitivity of the bee Octβ2R, indicating that relative insensitivity of their receptor is the major mechanism for honeybees to resist amitraz. The present findings have important implications for resistance management and the design of safer insecticides that selectively target pests while maintaining low toxicity to non-target pollinators.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for all the figures.
- Jia Huang
- Jia Huang
- Jia Huang
- Craig Montell
- Craig Montell
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Sonia Sen, Tata Institute for Genetics and Society, India
© 2021, Huang et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Global agro-biodiversity has resulted from processes of plant migration and agricultural adoption. Although critically affecting current diversity, crop diffusion from Classical antiquity to the Middle Ages is poorly researched, overshadowed by studies on that of prehistoric periods. A new archaeobotanical dataset from three Negev Highland desert sites demonstrates the first millennium CE&'s significance for long-term agricultural change in southwest Asia. This enables evaluation of the 'Islamic Green Revolution' (IGR) thesis compared to 'Roman Agricultural Diffusion' (RAD), and both versus crop diffusion during and since the Neolithic. Among the finds, some of the earliest aubergine (Solanum melongena) seeds in the Levant represent the proposed IGR. Several other identified economic plants, including two unprecedented in Levantine archaeobotany-jujube (Ziziphus jujuba/mauritiana) and white lupine (Lupinus albus)-implicate RAD as the greater force for crop migrations. Altogether the evidence supports a gradualist model for Holocene-wide crop diffusion, within which the first millennium CE contributed more to global agricultural diversity than any earlier period.
Temperature determines the geographical distribution of organisms and affects the outbreak and damage of pests. Insects seasonal polyphenism is a successful strategy adopted by some species to adapt the changeable external environment. Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang & Li) showed two seasonal morphotypes, summer-form and winter-form, with significant differences in morphological characteristics. Low temperature is the key environmental factor to induce its transition from summer-form to winter-form. However, the detailed molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here, we firstly confirmed that low temperature of 10 °C induced the transition from summer-form to winter-form by affecting the cuticle thickness and chitin content. Subsequently, we demonstrated that CcTRPM functions as a temperature receptor to regulate this transition. In addition, miR-252 was identified to mediate the expression of CcTRPM to involve in this morphological transition. Finally, we found CcTre1 and CcCHS1, two rate-limiting enzymes of insect chitin biosyntheis, act as the critical down-stream signal of CcTRPM in mediating this behavioral transition. Taken together, our results revealed that a signal transduction cascade mediates the seasonal polyphenism in C. chinensis. These findings not only lay a solid foundation for fully clarifying the ecological adaptation mechanism of C. chinensis outbreak, but also broaden our understanding about insect polymorphism.