The panel shows the overall relationship between interaction strengths of the 50 dominant fish species and (a, d) salinity, (b, e) tide level (cm), and (c, f) wave (m). The y-axis indicates the interaction strength between fish species quantified by the MDR S-map method. Note that the MDR S-map enables quantifications of interaction strengths at each time point, and thus the number of data points is large. (a–c) Points indicate the species interactions that a focal species receives (i.e., in-strength), and (d–f) points indicate the species interactions that a focal species gives (i.e., out-strength). The line indicates the nonlinear regression line estimated by the general additive model. Colors of points and lines indicate the study site.