For social insects like honeybees it is beneficial if their queens mate with many males, because genetic diversity can protect the hive against parasites. Early in life, a honeybee queen has a short period of time in which she can fly out to mate with males before returning to the hive with all the sperm needed to last for a lifetime. Queens that have mated on their first flight may embark on additional mating flights over a few consecutive days to further increase genetic variability in their offspring. This is problematic for a male that has already mated because the more males that inseminate the queen the fewer offspring will carry on his specific genes. This results in sexual conflict between males and queens over the number of mating flights.
In many animals, males manipulate females using molecules in seminal fluid to reduce the chances of the female mating again and honeybee males may use a similar strategy. Previous studies revealed that insemination alters the activity of genes related to vision in a honeybee queen’s brain. This could be one way for the males to prevent queens from embarking on additional mating flights.
Now, Liberti et al. find support for this idea by showing that seminal fluid can indeed trigger changes in the activity of vision-related genes in the brains of honeybee queens, which in turn reduce a queen’s opportunity to complete additional mating flights. Queens inseminated with seminal fluid were less responsive to light compared to queens that were exposed to saline instead. Electronic tracking devices affixed to queens showed that the seminal fluid-exposed queens left for mating flights sooner but were more likely to get lost and to not return to their hives compared to the saline-exposed queens.
The experiments support the idea of a sexual arms race in honeybees. Males use seminal fluid to cause rapid deteriorating vision in queens, thus reducing their likelihood of leaving the hive to mate again and to find males when they do fly again. The queens try to counteract these effects by leaving for mating flights sooner, thereby increasing offspring genetic diversity and the success of their colonies. Further studies will be needed to find out how the honeybee sexual arms race varies across seasons, bee races, and geographic ranges. Such information will be useful for honeybee breeding programs, which rely on queen mating success and hive genetic diversity to ensure hive health.