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Neurotransmitters are chemicals released by the body that trigger activity in neurons. Receptors on the surface of neurons detect these neurotransmitters, providing a link between the inside and the outside of the cell. Glutamate is one of the major neurotransmitters and is involved in virtually all brain functions. Glutamate binds to two different types of receptors in neurons. Ionotropic receptors have pores known as ion channels, which open when glutamate binds. This is a fast-acting response that allows sodium ions to flow into the neuron, triggering an electrical signal. Metabotropic receptors, on the other hand, trigger a series of events inside the cell that lead to a response. Metabotropic receptors take more time than ionotropic receptors to elicit a response in the cell, but their effects last much longer.
One type of receptor, known as the GluD family, is very similar to ionotropic glutamate receptors but does not directly respond to glutamate. Instead, the ion channel of GluD receptors opens after being activated by glutamate metabotropic receptors. GluD receptors are produced throughout the brain and play roles in synapse formation and activity, but the way they work remains unclear. An obstacle to understanding how GluD receptors work is the lack of molecules that can specifically block these receptors’ ion channel activity.
Lemoine et al. have developed a tool that enables control of the ion channel in GluD receptors using light. Human cells grown in the lab were genetically modified to produce a version of GluD2 (a member of the GluD family) with a light-sensitive molecule attached. In darkness or under green light, the light-sensitive molecule blocks the channel and prevents ions from passing through. Under violet light, the molecule twists, and ions can flow through the channel.
With this control over the GluD2 ion channel activity, Lemoine et al. were able to validate previous research showing that the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors can trigger GluD2 to open. The next step will be to test this approach in neurons. This will help researchers to understand what role GluD ion channels play in neuron to neuron communication.