Focusing your attention on one thing can leave you surprisingly unaware of what goes on around you. A classic experiment known as ‘the invisible gorilla’ highlights this phenomenon. Volunteers were asked to watch a clip featuring basketball players, and count how often those wearing white shirts passed the ball: around half of participants failed to spot that someone wearing a gorilla costume wandered into the game and spent nine seconds on screen.
Yet, things that you are not focusing on can sometimes grab your attention anyway. Take for example, the ‘cocktail party effect’, the ability to hear your name among the murmur of a crowded room. So why can we react to our own names, but fail to spot the gorilla? To help answer this question, Nuiten et al. examined how paying attention affects the way the brain processes input.
Healthy volunteers were asked to perform various tasks while the words ‘left’ or ‘right’ played through speakers. The content of the word was sometimes consistent with its location (‘left’ being played on the left speaker), and sometimes opposite (‘left’ being played on the right speaker). Processing either the content or the location of the word is relatively simple for the brain; however detecting a discrepancy between these two properties is challenging, requiring the information to be processed in a brain region that monitors conflict in sensory input.
To manipulate whether the volunteers needed to pay attention to the words, Nuiten et al. made their content or location either relevant or irrelevant for a task. By analyzing brain activity and task performance, they were able to study the effects of attention on how the word properties were processed.
The results showed that the volunteers’ brains were capable of dealing with basic information, such as location or content, even when their attention was directed elsewhere. But discrepancies between content and location could only be detected when the volunteers were focusing on the words, or when their content or location was directly relevant to the task.
The findings by Nuiten et al. suggest that while performing a difficult task, our brains continue to react to basic input but often fail to process more complex information. This, in turn, has implications for a range of human activities such as driving. New technology could potentially help to counteract this phenomenon, aiming to direct attention towards complex information that might otherwise be missed.