(A) Subject setup shown from side view. (B) (Left) experimental apparatus and target object shown from the subject’s point of view for experimental runs where either the hand (top) or reverse tool (bottom) were used. The location of the target object (white block) was switched between run types but did not change its position from trial-to-trial within a imaging run. Dashed line represents the participant’s arc of reachability for each run type. In both cases (left panels), the hand is shown at its starting location. Green star with dark shadow represents the fixation LED and its location in depth. (Right) Hand and tool positions during movements performed by the subject. (C) Timing of each event-related trial. Trials began with the 3D object being illuminated while the subject maintained fixation (Preview phase; 6 s). Subjects were then instructed via headphones to perform one of two movements: Grasp the object (‘Grasp’) without lifting it or Touch the object (‘Touch’), initiating the Plan phase portion of the trial. Following a fixed delay interval (12 s), subjects were cued (by an auditory ‘beep’) to perform the instructed movement (initiating the Execute phase) and then return to the starting location. 2 s after the Go cue, vision of the workspace was extinguished and participants waited for the following trial to begin (14-s intertrial interval, ITI). (D) Averaged fMRI activity from left dorsal premotor (PMd) cortex, time-locked to trial length. MVPA was performed using single fMRI trials in two ways: 1) based on the % signal change (SC) BOLD activation evoked for each single time point in the trial (time-resolved decoding), allowing us to pinpoint when predictive movement information was available and 2) based on a windowed average of the % SC BOLD activation in the 4 s (2 imaging volumes) prior to movement initiation (denoted by the gray shaded bar).