(A) Feedback (ethylene signaling components, above) of the ethylene response and feedforward (downstream effectors, below). Downstream effectors in green are transcriptionally induced by ethylene. Known EIN3 targets are noted by asterisks; all other EIN3 candidate targets were discovered by this study. (B and C) EIN3 candidate targets are involved in hormone co-regulation. Node color represents hormone annotation, as indicated in B; large nodes are EIN3 candidate targets. Dark grey edges represent protein-protein interactions (PPI) and light grey edges are protein–DNA interactions (PDI). Hormone annotation legend: abscisic acid (ABA), brassinosteroid (BR), cytokinin (CK), ethylene (ETH), gibberellin (GA), auxin (IAA), methyl jasmonate (MJ), salicylic acid (SA), >1, more than one hormone. (D) EIN3-mediated ethylene co-regulation occurs at many different levels. PPIs are from the Arabidopsis Interactome Mapping Consortium, and EIN3 PDIs are from this study.