(A) Ras cycles between an inactive, GDP-bound form and an active GTP-bound form. In T cells, two nucleotide exchange factors, SOS and RasGRP1 enhance the removal of nucleotide from Ras, which is then replaced with GTP. Each exchange factor shares a common catalytic module but is regulated by distinct signaling inputs. SOS activity is enhanced by Ras•GTP, generated by RasGRP1, binding to an allosteric site. The regulatory domains from each exchange factor are distinct and are represented in gray. SOS is recruited to the membrane in part by Grb2, which interacts with phosphotyrosine residues in the adapter LAT. (B) The catalytic core of RasGRP1 includes the REM and Cdc25 domains, which are followed by a regulatory module containing the EF domain, membrane binding C1 domain and a predicted coiled coil. An alternate translational start site is present that leads to a RasGRP1 protein without the first 49 residues. The constructs used in this study are shown.