Innate immune recognition is critical for the induction of adaptive immune responses; however the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that T cell-specific deletion of the IL-6 receptor α chain (IL-6Rα) results in impaired Th1 and Th17 T cell responses in vivo, and a defect in the Tfh function. Depletion of Tregs in these mice rescued the Th1 but not the Th17 response. Our data suggest that IL-6 signaling in effector T cells is required to overcome Treg-mediated suppression in vivo. We show that IL-6 cooperates with IL-1β to block the suppressive effect of Tregs on CD4+ T cells, at least in part by controlling their responsiveness to IL-2. In addition, although IL-6Rα-deficient T cells mount normal primary Th1 responses in the absence of Tregs, they fail to mature into functional memory cells, demonstrating a key role for IL-6 in CD4+ T cell memory formation.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#2011-08006) of the Yale University.
- Tadatsugu Taniguchi, University of Tokyo, Japan
© 2014, Nish et al.
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A new study sheds light on how SARS-CoV-2 influences the way natural killer cells can recognize and kill infected cells.
Staphylococcus aureus infections pose a potential threat to livestock production and public health. A novel strategy is needed to control S. aureus infections due to its adaptive evolution to antibiotics. Autophagy plays a key role in degrading bacteria for innate immune cells. In order to promote S. aureus clearance via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced autophagy pathway, the domain fusion TLR2-4 with the extracellular domain of TLR2, specific recognizing S. aureus, and transmembrane and intracellular domains of TLR4 is assembled, then the goat expressing TLR2-4 is generated. TLR2-4 substantially augments the removal of S. aureus within macrophages by elevating autophagy level. Phosphorylated JNK and ERK1/2 promote LC3-puncta in TLR2-4 macrophages during S. aureus-induced autophagy via MyD88 mediated the TAK1 signaling cascade. Meantime, the TRIF-dependent TBK1-TFEB-OPTN signaling is involved in TLR2-4-triggered autophagy after S. aureus challenge. Moreover, the transcript of ATG5 and ATG12 is significantly increased via cAMP-PKA-NF-κB signaling, which facilitates S. aureus-induced autophagy in TLR2-4 macrophages. Overall, the novel receptor TLR2-4 enhances the autophagy-dependent clearance of S. aureus in macrophages via TAK1/TBK1-JNK/ERK, TBK1-TFEB-OPTN, and cAMP-PKA-NF-κB-ATGs signaling pathways, which provide an alternative approach for resistant against S. aureus infection.