(A) A matrix summarizing the projection patterns in the MB lobes of the KC axons, the MBONs, the DANs, and other modulatory neurons. The 15 lobe compartments and the core of distal pedunculus (pedc) are separated with thick vertical lines, and each compartment is further divided into columns representing ‘synaptic units’ (Tanaka et al., 2008), elemental subdivisions that are the smallest regions in the MB lobes where a specific set of MBONs, DANs, and KC types overlap. For example, the β1 compartment can be divided into posterior (β1p), surface (β1s), and core (β1c) subdivisions containing the axons of the α/βp, α/βs, and α/βc KCs, respectively. The processes of some MBONs and DANs do not arborize in an entire compartment, but only in a subset of its elemental subdivisions. Tanaka et al. (2008) first described this anatomical feature and called such regions ‘synaptic units’. An example is shown in Figure 11D, which shows a two-color labeling experiment illustrating the subdivision of the α2 compartment by the dendrites of the two MBONs, one of which arborizes in the domain of the posterior KCs (α2p) and the other in the domain of the surface and core KCs (α2sc); this arrangement is diagrammed in Panel D. The heavy vertical lines divide subdivisions into three groups representing different MBON neurotransmitter types (also indicated by the colors filling the cells of the matrix). The rows of the matrix correspond to the cell types of KCs, MBONs, and DANs. See Table 1 for synonyms for cell type names and references. The colors of the cells of the matrix indicate the putative transmitter for MBONs and cluster of origin for DANs. The color correspondence is given below the matrix. The two MBON types of unknown neurotransmitter type are indicated in light gray. The fully-colored cells of the matrix represent processes of neurons (dendrites for MBONs and synaptic terminals for DANs) that are uniformly and densely distributed in that subdivision; fainter colors represent subdivisions that are innervated only sparsely. In three cases, output neurons send axon terminals back into the MB. Such cases are represented by an ‘X’ with the size representing the density of terminals in that subdivision. One DAN cell type (PAM-γ4<γ1γ2) has dendrites within (as well as outside) the lobes in the subdivisions indicated by an ‘O’ (see Figure 14—figure supplement 1E). The projection patterns of the GABAergic MB-APL and serotonergic MB-DPM are diagramed; these neurons are MB intrinsic neurons that broadly innervate the MB (Figure 3—figure supplement 1B,C) (Waddell et al., 2000; Tanaka et al., 2008). Also diagrammed are the projection patterns of the octopaminergic OA-VPM3 and OA-VPM4 (Figure 3—figure supplement 1E) (Busch et al., 2009; Busch and Tanimoto, 2010) and SIFamide peptidergic neurons (Figure 3—figure supplement 1F) (Verleyen et al., 2004) within the lobes; these neurons have only a small fraction of their terminals within the MB (Figure 2—figure supplement 6) and these sparsely innervate only a subset of the compartments. The following abbreviations are used in the names of the subdivisions: a, anterior; m, middle; p, posterior; d, dorsal; s, surface; c, core; and pedc, pedunculus core. (B–D) Diagrams illustrating different circuit motifs found in the MB lobes. (B) The terminals of a single DAN type (PAM-α1) and the dendrites of a single MBON type (MBON-α1) occupy a compartment. 16 of the 21 MBON types, like MBON-α1, arborize dendrites within just one of the three lobes (i.e., γ, α′/β′, and α/β), indicating that these MBONs receive inputs from only one of the three KC classes. (C) Two DANs (PAM-γ5 and PAM-β′2a) innervate the region occupied by one MBON (MBON-γ5β′2a). One DAN fills the γ5 compartment and the other only innervates the anterior elemental subdivision of the β′2 compartment (β′2a); a single MBON has inputs from the areas defined by both DANs. Four MBON types, like MBON-γ5β′2a, extend dendrites spanning lobe boundaries. (D) A single DAN (PPL1-α′2α2) innervate two compartments (the α′2 and α2), an area covered by three MBON types (MBON-α′2, -α2sc, and -α2p3p). Eight MBON types, like MBON-α2sc and MBON-α2p3p, arborize dendrites further confined to elemental subdivision(s) within a compartment. This suggests that these MBONs receive input exclusively from subtypes of KCs; for example, MBON-α2p3p receives input from α/βp KCs, which presumably carry non-olfactory information (see Figure 7A). Nearly all DANs have their termini confined to a single compartment; however, we identified 3 DAN types that have axon terminals in two compartments.