2 figures and 1 table


Comparison of nociceptive-evoked brain activity in selected brain regions that are active in both adults and infants.

Significantly, active voxels across each stimulus intensity level are presented for (A) adult and (B) infant participants (applied force: adults 32–512 mN; infants 32–128 mN). Each colour represents activity in a different anatomical brain region. (A) Adult activity is overlaid onto a standard T1 weighted MNI template and (B) infant activity is overlaid onto a standard T2 weighted neonatal template, corresponding to a 40-week gestation infant. ACC: anterior cingulate cortex; S1: primary somatosensory cortex: PMC: primary motor cortex; SMA: supplementary motor area.

Figure 2 with 1 supplement
Noxious-evoked brain activity in response to the maximal presented stimulus in adults (512 mN) and infants (128 mN).

Red-yellow coloured areas represent active brain regions (threshold z ≥ 2.3 with a corrected cluster significance level of p < 0.05). An image of a midline sagittal brain slice (right panel) identifies the location of each example slice in the horizontal plane. (A) Adult activity is overlaid onto a standard T1 weighted MNI template and (B) infant activity is overlaid onto a standard T2 weighted neonatal template, corresponding to a 40-week gestation infant.

Figure 2—figure supplement 1
Relationship between percentage change in BOLD signal and stimulus intensity (force) in four example active brain regions in adult and infant participants.

A: Contralateral insula; B: Contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1); C: Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and D: Ipsilateral cerebellum. The crosses represent activity in individual participants. Red and blue lines are fitted regression lines and dashed lines show 95 % confidence intervals.



Table 1

Identification of all active brain regions in adults and infants following acute noxious stimulation at all stimulus intensities (applied force: adults 32–512 mN; infants 32–128 mN)

Anatomical areaRegionPeak Z within clusterMNI coordsRankSlope of regression (*E-03)P val*Peak Z within clusterNeonate template coordsRankSlope of regression (*E-03)P val*
Active regions in both adults and infantsIntensity encoding regions (in adults)Temporal gyrusContra3.9264−342011.010.00023.0532−321212.460.0083
Cingulate gyrusAnterior4.11644020.650.00052.58−1126111.010.3971
Opercular cortexContra5.604061030.630.00013.3832−131922.230.0391
Supramarginal gyrusContra4.3364−382050.600.00083.2925−233991.080.1749
Postcentral gyrusContra4.2858−182260.600.00123.8515−2252101.010.2667
Visual cortexContra3.6244−62470.590.00043.2521−523461.410.0814
Supplementary motor areaContra3.918446110.390.00083.506−184871.230.2315
Non intensity encoding regions (in adults)CerebellumIpsi3.88−20−66−440.350.00293.53−3−46−63.570.0164
Temporal gyrusIpsi3.72−52−56100.180.54873.41−32−22142.900.0196
Supramarginal gyrusIpsi4.59−64−28200.510.00353.13−31−24302.790.0055
Opercular cortexIpsi5.23−50−28260.500.00182.69−27−12132.230.0710
Postcentral gyrusIpsi4.71−62−18240.440.03753.52−31−15412.120.0845
Angular gyrusIpsi3.59−58−50180.530.01072.98−23−39331.560.0528
Precentral gyrusIpsi4.01−580100.430.05783.46−23−17481.530.1247
Frontal gyrusContra3.88581200.560.02123.1111−12481.420.0646
Cingulate gyrusPosterior3.71−14−28380.080.24803.18−9−23351.420.1101
Angular gyrusContra3.7160−46180.540.00803.1222−51351.420.0407
Precuneous cortexContra3.6016−68400.380.07143.705−30521.190.1623
Visual cortexIpsi3.82−52−7010−0.090.37582.59−7−40111.170.1657
Parietal lobuleContra3.1020−44680.610.10973.1027−24461.090.1271
Supplementary motor areaIpsi3.55−64440.400.02193.16−4−10460.910.3903
Precentral GyrusContra4.0558480.440.02763.766−20530.880.2672
Frontal gyrusIpsi3.57−82232−0.240.19542.79−13−9500.700.4820
Active regions in adults onlyAmygdalaContra3.4920−2−140.690.0160
Orbitofrontal cortexIpsi3.40−184−160.420.0157no activity
Orbitofrontal cortexContra3.573430−20.440.0460
Active regions in infants onlyPrecuneous cortexIpsi3.80−1−26521.260.1699
Parietal lobuleIpsi3.31−28−23330.990.2711
Auditory cortexContra2.8926−14183.070.0119
Auditory cortexIpsi3.34−17−29192.560.0304
CaudateContrano activity3.6113−17220.590.5822

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  1. Sezgi Goksan
  2. Caroline Hartley
  3. Faith Emery
  4. Naomi Cockrill
  5. Ravi Poorun
  6. Fiona Moultrie
  7. Richard Rogers
  8. Jon Campbell
  9. Michael Sanders
  10. Eleri Adams
  11. Stuart Clare
  12. Mark Jenkinson
  13. Irene Tracey
  14. Rebeccah Slater
fMRI reveals neural activity overlap between adult and infant pain
eLife 4:e06356.