(A-–C) Average coherence maps of brain-wide activity during stimulation of excitatory central thalamus relay neurons at 10, 40, and 100 Hz. Warm colors indicate positive BOLD responses, while cool colors indicate negative BOLD responses (see ‘Materials and methods’). (D) Regions of interest (ROIs) used for quantitative analysis of spatial ofMRI activation patterns. (E) The amount of active volume (positive signal with coherence > 0.35) in the ipsilateral thalamus is significantly greater during 40 and 100 Hz stimulations than 10 Hz stimulation. Thalamic recruitment is relatively limited on the contralateral side. (F) Activation of the ipsilateral striatum is significantly greater during 40 and 100 Hz stimulations than 10 Hz stimulation. Activation of the contralateral striatum is limited across frequencies, although there is an increase from 10 to 100 Hz. (G) Medial and lateral prefrontal cortex exhibit a significantly greater volume of activation during 40 and/or 100 Hz stimulation than 10 Hz stimulation. Activity in the contralateral hemisphere is limited across all tested frequencies, although there is an increase from 10 to 100 Hz. (H) Activation of cingulate, motor, and somatosensory cortex is each greater during 40 and 100 Hz stimulations than 10 Hz stimulation. The contralateral motor and sensory cortices are also activated to a greater extent during 40 and/or 100 Hz stimulation. Scale bars in panels A through C represent 2 mm. Asterisks in panels E through H indicate significant differences for 10 versus 40 Hz and 10 versus 100 Hz stimulations. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.005, ***p < 0.001, one-sided Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, corrected for multiple comparisons. Error bars represent mean ± s.e.m. across animals. n = 16, 10, and 16 animals for 10, 40, and 100 Hz, respectively. Abbreviations are as follows: i- (ipsilateral), c- (contralateral), Cg (cingulate cortex), MC (motor cortex), MPFC (medial prefrontal cortex), LPFC (lateral prefrontal cortex), SC (sensory cortex), Str (striatum), Th (thalamus). See also Figure 2—figure supplements 1/2/3 and Figure 2—source data 1.