Cell surface receptors are central to the cell's ability to generate coordinated responses to the multitude of biochemical and physical cues in the microenvironment. However, the mechanisms by which receptors enable this concerted cellular response remain unclear. To investigate the effect of cellular tension on cell surface receptors, we combined novel high-resolution imaging and single particle tracking with established biochemical assays to examine TGFβ signaling. We find that TGFβ receptors are discretely organized to segregated spatial domains at the cell surface. Integrin-rich focal adhesions organize TβRII around TβRI, limiting the integration of TβRII while sequestering TβRI at these sites. Disruption of cellular tension leads to a collapse of this spatial organization and drives formation of heteromeric TβRI/TβRII complexes and Smad activation. This work details a novel mechanism by which cellular tension regulates TGFβ receptor organization, multimerization, and function, providing new insight into the mechanisms that integrate biochemical and physical cues.
- Johanna Ivaska, University of Turku, Finland
© 2015, Rys et al.
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PCSK9 negatively regulates low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) abundance on the cell surface, leading to decreased hepatic clearance of LDL particles and increased levels of plasma cholesterol. We previously identified SURF4 as a cargo receptor that facilitates PCSK9 secretion in HEK293T cells (Emmer et al., 2018). Here, we generated hepatic SURF4-deficient mice (Surf4fl/fl Alb-Cre+) to investigate the physiologic role of SURF4 in vivo. Surf4fl/fl Alb-Cre+ mice exhibited normal viability, gross development, and fertility. Plasma PCSK9 levels were reduced by ~60% in Surf4fl/fl Alb-Cre+ mice, with a corresponding ~50% increase in steady state LDLR protein abundance in the liver, consistent with SURF4 functioning as a cargo receptor for PCSK9. Surprisingly, these mice exhibited a marked reduction in plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels out of proportion to the partial increase in hepatic LDLR abundance. Detailed characterization of lipoprotein metabolism in these mice instead revealed a severe defect in hepatic lipoprotein secretion, consistent with prior reports of SURF4 also promoting the secretion of apolipoprotein B. Despite a small increase in liver mass and lipid content, histologic evaluation revealed no evidence of steatohepatitis or fibrosis in Surf4fl/fl Alb-Cre+ mice. Acute depletion of hepatic SURF4 by CRISPR/Cas9 or liver-targeted siRNA in adult mice confirms these findings. Together, these data support the physiologic significance of SURF4 in the hepatic secretion of PCSK9 and APOB-containing lipoproteins and its potential as a therapeutic target in atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.
Telocytes (TCs) or interstitial cells are characterised in vivo by their long projections that contact other cell types. Although telocytes can be found in many different tissues including the heart1, lung2 and intestine3, their tissue-specific roles are poorly understood. Here we identify a specific cell signalling role for telocytes in the periodontium whereby telocytes regulate macrophage activity. We performed scRNA-seq and lineage tracing to identify telocytes and macrophages in mouse periodontium in homeostasis and periodontitis and carried out HGF signalling inhibition experiments using Tivantinib. We show that telocytes are quiescent in homeostasis, however, they proliferate and serve as a major source of HGF in periodontitis. Macrophages receive telocyte-derived HGF signals and shift from an M1 to a M1/M2 state. Our results reveal the source of HGF signals in periodontal tissue and provide new insights into the function of telocytes in regulating macrophage behaviour in periodontitis through HGF/Met cell signalling, that may provide a novel approach in periodontitis treatment.