(A) The design orthogonally manipulated factors of Stimulus Domain (verbal, spatial) and two forms of cognitive control: Contextual Control (low – Control, Delay; high – Restart, Dual) and Temporal Control (low – Control, Restart; high – Delay, Dual). These factors were fully crossed in a 2 x 2 x 2 design. (B) Cognitive control processes engaged by condition. (C) The basic task required participants to judge whether a stimulus followed the previous stimulus in a sequence. The sequence in the verbal task was the order of the letters in the word 'tablet.' The sequence in the spatial task was a trace of the points of a star. The start of each sequence began with a decision regarding whether the currently viewed stimulus is the start of the sequence (e.g. ‘t’ in the verbal task). (D) Factors were blocked with each block containing a basic task phase, a sub-task phase, a return trial, and a second basic task phase (not depicted), for all but the Control blocks. Control blocks consisted only of the basic task phase extended to match the other conditions in duration. Colored frames indicated whether letters or locations were relevant for the block (verbal – purple; spatial – orange in this example; verbal condition depicted). The basic task was cued by square frames. Other frames cued the different sub-task conditions. In the Delay condition (circle frames), participants held in mind the place in the sequence across a distractor-filled delay. In the Restart condition (diamond frames), participants started a new sequence. In the Dual condition (cross frames), participants simultaneously started a new sequence, and maintained the place in the previous sequence.