(A) Ca2+ transients in a population of layer 5 pyramidal neuron dendrites during TMS delivered at increasing strengths (50%, 80%, 90%, 100% ). Note, there was no excitatory Ca2+ response to TMS. (B) Sensory evoked Ca2+ transients in a population of layer 5 pyramidal neuron dendrites during hindpaw stimulation (HS, black) and combined HS and TMS delivered at decreasing distances from the craniotomy (10–30 mm). Inset, overlay of Ca2+ transient during HS+TMS at far (30 mm) and near (10 mm) TMS coil distances. (C) Integral of the sensory evoked Ca2+ transients during HS+TMS when the TMS coil is positioned is at different distances from the craniotomy. TMS, transcranial magnetic stimulation.