(a) The protein-synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX, n = 12) injected immediately after 1 hr training (left) had no effect on the auditory preference index compared to controls (n = 15) and vehicle-injected (n = 14) groups. In contrast, 2 hr training, which induced stronger preference to the imprinted sound, was blocked by CHX-treatment (n = 11) compared to controls (n = 13) and vehicle-injected group (n = 9). (b) Visual imprinting was already robust after 1 hr training (left) in controls (n = 15) and chickens injected with vehicle (n = 14), and blocked by CHX-administration (n = 12). On the other hand, 2 hr training (right) also induced robust preference to the imprinted visual object in controls (n = 13) and vehicle-injected chickens (n = 9) but was not blocked by CHX administration (n = 12). Plots show mean and SEM, * indicates p<0.05 from two-ways ANOVA test, Bonferroni Post hoc test. (c) SUnSET protocol used to detect experience-dependent translation changes in MNM and IMM in the presence or absence of CHX. (d,e) Puromycin (green) incorporation is decreased in trained animals treated with CHX. S6 (red) was used to identify cell somas. Sample sizes: MNM trained (five chickens, 40 images at 10X, zoom 3X); MNM trained and CHX administration (six chickens, 48 images at 10X, zoom 3X); IMM trained (five chickens, 39 images at 10X, zoom 3X); IMM trained and CHX administration (six chickens, 47 images at 10X, zoom 3X). Bar plots show mean and SEM; * indicates p<0.05 from unpaired Mann-Whitney test.