(A–F) Comparisons of responses of individual dopamine neurons during CS (0–1 s) predicting nothing (black) and punishment (red) in high reward probability task 2 (A, n = 17, t(16) = 0.35, p=0.73, paired t test), high reward probability task (B, n = 17, t(16) = 2.1, p=0.05), high reward contexts (data collected from two high reward probability tasks; C, n = 34, t(33) = 1.5, p=0.14), mixed prediction task (D, n = 26, **t(25) = 3.7, p=1.2 × 10−3), low reward probability task (E, n = 12, **t(11) = 3.8, p=2.8 × 10−3), and low reward contexts (data pooled from mixed prediction task and low reward probability task; F, n = 38, ***t(37) = 5.0, p=1.5 × 10−5). For all box plots, central mark is the median, box edges are 25th and 75th percentiles, whiskers extend to the most extreme data points not considered outliers (points 1.5 × interquartile range away from the 25th or 75th percentile), and outliers are plotted as plus symbols. n.s., not significant. (G) Comparison of the percentage of dopamine neurons showing significant inhibition to punishment CS than baseline (Air puff CS < Baseline) between high and low reward contexts (n = 34 and 38, respectively). **chi(1) = 7.25, p=7.1 × 10−3, chi-square test. Error bar, S.E.M. (H) Comparison of the percentage of dopamine neurons showing significant inhibition to punishment CS than nothing CS (Air puff CS < Nothing CS) between high and low reward contexts (n = 34 and 38, respectively). *chi(1) = 4.57, p=0.03, chi-square test.