Analyses were conducted using a 400 ms time-frequency window centred on 0.75 s at encoding and 1.25 s at retrieval (where the maximum effect was observed in the main analysis, Figure 2C). (A) Reinstatement values for AR after selectively excluding (left) or only including (right) a particular frequency band. ‘Reference’ denotes the reinstatement value when including all frequency bands (c.f., Figure 2A). Bars show mean ± s.e.m. across participants (n=11). In a repeated measures ANOVA on reinstatement values including the factors Set (excluded, only) and Frequency Band (δ, θ, α, β, γ1, γ2), there was a significant main effect of Set (F(1, 10) = 83.43, P<0.001), but no main effect of Frequency Band (F(2.63, 26.28) = 1.95,P = 0.153) nor a Set x Frequency Band interaction (F(2.61, 26.06) = 0.58, P = 0.608). Note also that there was no effect of Frequency Band when analysing each set separately [band excluded: F(1.96, 19.59) = 2.44, P = 0.114; band only: F(2.57, 25.66) = 0.99, P = 0.403]. (B) Effect sizes (minimum t of the conjunction AR > AR surrogates & AR > IR) after selectively excluding (left) or only including (right) a particular frequency band. ‘Reference’ denotes the effect when including all frequency bands (c.f., Figure 2C). Dashed horizontal red line denotes the critical t value for P<0.05 (df = 10), uncorrected. (C) Decomposition of the ‘reference’ reinstatement into contributions of each frequency (‘correlation weights’): the product of normalized ‘standard scores’ was calculated for each time-frequency bin in the 400 ms window centred at 0.75 s encoding/1.25 s retrieval. To yield the relative contribution of each frequency to the observed correlation, these scores were summed across the 41 time bins. Note that the sum of these correlation weights along the frequency axis would again be the correlation coefficient between the encoding and retrieval time-frequency window (‘reference’). Correlation weights are separately shown for AR (green) and AR surrogates (grey). Frequencies are plotted on a log scale. Vertical lines show transitions between δ, θ, α, β, γ1 and γ2 bands. A repeated measures ANOVA including the factors Condition (AR, AR surrogates) and Frequency (2:1:29 30:5:100) on these correlation weights revealed only a main effect of Condition (F(1, 10) = 10.09, P = 0.010; reflecting the greater reinstatement for AR than for AR surrogates), and no main effect of Frequency F(5.98, 59.83) = 1.74, P = 0.128) nor a Condition x Frequency interaction (F(5.65, 56.49) = 1.32, P = 0.267).