(A) Schematic illustration of the task structure. A trial starts with the presentation of the sample lever at one of two locations ('sample press'). By pressing the sample lever, the rat initiates the delay period (1 s, 5 s, or 10 s duration). At the end of the delay period, the nose port on the back wall of the chamber is activated, and by entering the port (i.e. nose-poking), both levers are presented. By pressing the lever that does not correspond to the sample lever at the beginning of the trial (i.e. choice press), the rat receives a reward; pressing the other lever results in a timeout (T/O). (B) Top: Schematic illustration of the chamber and the rat’s position at the time of the sample lever press (left), the delay period (middle), and the choice lever press (right). Bottom: Occupancy-map of the rats’ head position for right-sample trials at the time of the sample lever press (time window from 250 ms before to 250 ms after lever press), delay period (center, time window is the entire delay period for 10 s delay period trials only), and choice lever press (right, time window from 250 ms before to 250 ms after lever press). Occupancy-maps were generated by averaging the occupancy-maps of the 9 rats used in the electrophysiology experiments. Individual occupancy-maps were calculated by binning the head positions over the respective time windows into 0.5”× 0.5” tiles (covering the 9.5”×12” chamber). (C) Accuracy is delay dependent, decreasing as the duration of the delay period increases (p<10–4). Solid black line represents mean accuracy, and dotted grey lines represent the accuracy for each individual rat. Accuracy was calculated from the final recording session. (D) Response latency for each individual rat for sample press (time from sample presentation to sample press), nose-poke (time from nose port activation to nose-poke), and choice press (time from choice presentation to choice press). Center of each boxplot represents the median, edges correspond to 25th and 75th percentile, and whiskers correspond to fifth and 95th percentile.