The spatial tuning curves are modeled by adding an offset (, respectively) to a cosine-tuned response , i.e., (the curves follow similar forms). The relative amplitudes of the response to velocity, acceleration and jerk depend on the weights . Thus, the weighted cosine-tuned response components (abscissa) are: , and the weighted offset response components are: (ordinate). Purely cosine-tuned cells have zero offset (, ), while cells with positive or negative omnidirectional responses have a large offset and little modulation (, for positive responses, or for negative responses). Distributions of the offset parameters are shown in Figure 9—figure supplement 1.