(A) Females were familiarised with different types of male cues for more than 5 hr and then the males and females were placed together for mating tests.Grey lines indicate log transformed mean ± SEM time for females to mate. Different letters indicate statistically significant differences after a Tukey’s post hoc test (p<0.05). Each dot represents an individual female. With visual cues alone, the females were able to accept males as familiar mates and required less time to mate. (B) Log transformed time to mate for familiar males (females familiarised with visual cues), unfamiliar males (females given no cue), and exchanged males (females familarised with visual cues from a different male). After substituting the males, the females were able to detect the change and required more time to accept the males. (C) Setup of the electric shock TAFC experiment. The side views of the males were covered. Females were allowed to choose between two unfamiliar males, and when the female entered the area containing the ‘incorrect’ male, she was given an electric shock. When the female remained in the ‘correct’ side for more than 3 min, it was considered that she had made a correct choice, and no shock was given. (D) We tested whether medaka females could discriminate different males with the electric shock-conditioned test. The figure shows the mean ± SEM percentage of correct choices in the electric shock task for two consecutive days. Females were able to distinguish individual males associated with electric shock and performance was improved in the last six trials on the first day. Even after 24 hr, the females could still remember the males and made significantly more correct choices than in the first six trials on the first day.