Individual patients' reach kinematics before and after PA + tDCS.
Patients 1 and 2 performed the task with the right arm once each in the days before and after PA was combined with M1 anodal or sham tDCS. Patient 3 underwent the anodal condition only, but with both the non-paretic (right) arm and the recovered paretic (left) arm. Table lists individual trial data plus means and standard deviation for all three patients. Accuracy data show the number of trials of the total (11) that were correct, were missed (no response to the 'go' cue), were too slow (outliers = RT and/or MT ± 2 SD of the patient's mean for that condition), or in which the patient subsequently placed the ball in the wrong basket (i.e. the left following a right pre-cue, and vice versa). Only the centre-out phase of the reach was analysed. PA combined with anodal tDCS (compared to sham) speeded centre-out reach movement time, regardless of whether the central pre-cue instructed a subsequent leftward or rightward movement after grasping the ball. Kinematic parameters characterize both the transport component [Reaction time (RT), Movement Time (MT), Peak Velocity (PV), Time to Peak Velocity (TPV), Maximal Height of Wrist and Elbow (MHW, MHE)] and the grasp component [Maximum Grip Aperture (MGA), Time of Grip Aperture Onset (TGA), Time of Maximum Grip Aperture (TMGA)] of the centre-out reaching movement required to grasp the tennis ball.