Many biomedical research studies use captive animals to model human health and disease. However, a surprising number of studies show that the biological systems of animals living in standard laboratory housing are abnormal. To make animal studies more relevant to human health, the animals should live in the wild or be able to roam free in captive environments that offer a natural range of both positive and negative experiences. Recent technological advances now allow us to study freely roaming animals and we should make use of them.
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Sarah Shailes, eLife, United Kingdom
© 2017, Lahvis
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Temperature determines the geographical distribution of organisms and affects the outbreak and damage of pests. Insects seasonal polyphenism is a successful strategy adopted by some species to adapt the changeable external environment. Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang & Li) showed two seasonal morphotypes, summer-form and winter-form, with significant differences in morphological characteristics. Low temperature is the key environmental factor to induce its transition from summer-form to winter-form. However, the detailed molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here, we firstly confirmed that low temperature of 10 °C induced the transition from summer-form to winter-form by affecting the cuticle thickness and chitin content. Subsequently, we demonstrated that CcTRPM functions as a temperature receptor to regulate this transition. In addition, miR-252 was identified to mediate the expression of CcTRPM to involve in this morphological transition. Finally, we found CcTre1 and CcCHS1, two rate-limiting enzymes of insect chitin biosyntheis, act as the critical down-stream signal of CcTRPM in mediating this behavioral transition. Taken together, our results revealed that a signal transduction cascade mediates the seasonal polyphenism in C. chinensis. These findings not only lay a solid foundation for fully clarifying the ecological adaptation mechanism of C. chinensis outbreak, but also broaden our understanding about insect polymorphism.
As the Arctic continues to warm, woody shrubs are expected to expand northward. This process, known as ‘shrubification,’ has important implications for regional biodiversity, food web structure, and high-latitude temperature amplification. While the future rate of shrubification remains poorly constrained, past records of plant immigration to newly deglaciated landscapes in the Arctic may serve as useful analogs. We provide one new postglacial Holocene sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) record of vascular plants from Iceland and place a second Iceland postglacial sedaDNA record on an improved geochronology; both show Salicaceae present shortly after deglaciation, whereas Betulaceae first appears more than 1000 y later. We find a similar pattern of delayed Betulaceae colonization in eight previously published postglacial sedaDNA records from across the glaciated circum North Atlantic. In nearly all cases, we find that Salicaceae colonizes earlier than Betulaceae and that Betulaceae colonization is increasingly delayed for locations farther from glacial-age woody plant refugia. These trends in Salicaceae and Betulaceae colonization are consistent with the plant families’ environmental tolerances, species diversity, reproductive strategies, seed sizes, and soil preferences. As these reconstructions capture the efficiency of postglacial vascular plant migration during a past period of high-latitude warming, a similarly slow response of some woody shrubs to current warming in glaciated regions, and possibly non-glaciated tundra, may delay Arctic shrubification and future changes in the structure of tundra ecosystems and temperature amplification.