(A) Configuration of the experimental flight room for wireless, chronic neural recordings from freely flying echolocating bats. Shown is the bat (in brown) with the neural telemetry device mounted on the head (in green). The telemetry device transmits RF signals to an RF receiver connected to an amplifier and an analog-to-digital recording system. The bat’s flight path (in red) is reconstructed by 16 motion capture cameras (not all are shown) tracking three reflective markers mounted on the dorsal surface of the telemetry device (3 mm round hemispheres). While the bat flies, it encounters four different, cylindrical flight obstacles (shown in grey), and the sonar vocalizations are recorded with a wide-band microphone array mounted on the walls. (B) Overhead view of the room in the platform-landing task. The bat flew across the room (red line) using echolocation to navigate (black circles are sonar vocalizations) while recordings were made wirelessly from the SC (as shown in pane A). Vocalizations produced on this trial are shown in greater detail in bottom panels (filtered audio trace and corresponding spectrogram). The inset, on the right, shows a zoomed-in view of the spectrogram of one call, indicated by the red box. (C) Histological reconstruction of the silicon probe tract through the superior colliculus (SC) of one bat in the study. Shown are four serial coronal sections, approximately 2.5 mm from bregma, at the location of the SC. Lesions at the site of the silicon probe are indicated with black arrows. Also marked in the most rostral section are the locations of the SC, medial geniculate body (MGB), hippocampus (HPC), cortex, and dentate gyrus (DG). (D) Simultaneous neural recordings from SC from the recording sites identified with a blue square and green square in the silicon probe layout panel in Figure 1C. (layout of the 16-channel silicon probe used for SC recordings). (E) Top, change in sonar pulse duration as a function of object distance. Bottom, change in pulse interval as a function of object distance.