(A) Drift diffusion model (DDM) parameters and RTs. Table reports Mean and Standard Deviations (±SD). b = initial height of the barrier; d = rate of decay for collapsing barriers; NDT = non decision time.; RTs = reaction times. Results for the Altruism Task are reported both for full sample (N = 49), and for the subset of participants that also completing the Food Task (N = 36).
(B) Support vector regressions (SVRs) of decision values (DV) in both choice tasks. Results for goal-independent encoding of DVs (Main effect for DV, averaged information content across three conditions in each task) are reported at a statistical threshold of p < 0.05, FWE corrected at voxel-level; † indicates results for goal-dependent variations in DV (repeated measures ANOVAs across three conditions in each task) reported at p < 0.001, FWE cluster-corrected at p < 0.05, k = 10 voxels; only peak activations of clusters are reported; L = left hemisphere, R = right hemisphere, k = cluster size in voxels, MNI = Montreal Neurological Institute.
(C) Correlation of regulatory success in goal-dependent attribute weighting across choice domains. Correlation coefficients for change scores in attribute weights (w) in food choices and altruistic choices estimated in two separate DDMs. Successful reduction in the weight on selfish considerations (Δw $Self) in altruistic choices was correlated with successfully amplifying the weight on health considerations (Δw Healthiness) suppressing the weight of taste considerations (Δw Tastiness) in food choices. Changes in the ability to increase social considerations (Δw Other) were not correlated to goal-consistent changes in food attributes. Δw Tastiness [NC - TC] is not displayed, as estimated attribute weights did not significantly differ between conditions. Note also that differences scores in Δw Healthiness [NC - TC] (last column) were minimal, limiting the interpretability of the respective correlation analyses.
(D) Decoding of individual differences in regulatory success in DLPFC (altruism task). Decoding of individual differences in regulation success based on response patterns in right DLPFC (Figure 5A) obtained in the altruism task. Response patterns reliably predicted the extent of increased generous choice behavior. Consistent with key results reported in the main text, neural activation patterns also predicted individual’s increased healthy choices in a separate food task. Regarding altered attributes weights, predictive information in DLPFC was selective for subjects’ inhibition of $Self weights, but did not extend to altered weights on $Other or Fairness, confirming results reported in the main text. Higher-than-chance predictions are reported when decoding accuracy values exceeded the 95th percentile of empirical null-distribution (cutoff), obtained with 1000 replications of the analysis on permuted data sets.
(E) Univariate encoding of attributes in food task and altruism task. Regions reported as significant if they passed a cluster-corrected threshold p < 0.05, with a voxel-defining threshold of p < 0.001, uncorrected, unless otherwise noted. * Illustrates results significant at p < 0.001, uncorrected, reported for completeness: subgenual area did not overlap with the area of vmPFC that displayed overlapping representations of all attributes; only peak activations of clusters are reported; L = left hemisphere, R = right hemisphere, MNI = Montreal Neurological Institute, k = cluster size in voxels.