Activating mutations in fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor 3 and inactivating mutations in the NPR2 guanylyl cyclase both cause severe short stature, but how these two signaling systems interact to regulate bone growth is poorly understood. Here, we show that bone elongation is increased when NPR2 cannot be dephosphorylated and thus produces more cyclic GMP. By developing an in vivo imaging system to measure cyclic GMP production in intact tibia, we show that FGF-induced dephosphorylation of NPR2 decreases its guanylyl cyclase activity in growth plate chondrocytes in living bone. Thus FGF signaling lowers cyclic GMP production in the growth plate, which counteracts bone elongation. These results define a new component of the signaling network by which activating mutations in the FGF receptor inhibit bone growth.
- Laurinda A Jaffe
- Lincoln R Potter
- Jerid W Robinson
- Ninna P Shuhaibar
- Laurinda A Jaffe
- Leia C Shuhaibar
- Caroline N Dealy
- Lincoln R Potter
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All experiments were conducted as approved by the animal care committees of the University of Connecticut Health Center (101395-0519) and the University of Minnesota (1507-32769A).
- Gail Mandel, Oregon Health & Science University, United States
© 2017, Shuhaibar et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
We have identified active enhancers in the mouse cerebellum at embryonic and postnatal stages which provides a view of novel enhancers active during cerebellar development. The majority of cerebellar enhancers have dynamic activity between embryonic and postnatal development. Cerebellar enhancers were enriched for neural transcription factor binding sites with temporally specific expression. Putative gene targets displayed spatially restricted expression patterns, indicating cell-type specific expression regulation. Functional analysis of target genes indicated that enhancers regulate processes spanning several developmental epochs such as specification, differentiation and maturation. We use these analyses to discover one novel regulator and one novel marker of cerebellar development: Bhlhe22 and Pax3, respectively. We identified an enrichment of de novo mutations and variants associated with autism spectrum disorder in cerebellar enhancers. Furthermore, by comparing our data with relevant brain development ENCODE histone profiles and cerebellar single-cell datasets we have been able to generalize and expand on the presented analyses, respectively. We have made the results of our analyses available online in the Developing Mouse Cerebellum Enhancer Atlas (https://goldowitzlab.shinyapps.io/developing_mouse_cerebellum_enhancer_atlas/), where our dataset can be efficiently queried, curated and exported by the scientific community to facilitate future research efforts. Our study provides a valuable resource for studying the dynamics of gene expression regulation by enhancers in the developing cerebellum and delivers a rich dataset of novel gene-enhancer associations providing a basis for future in-depth studies in the cerebellum.
The blood system is supported by hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) found in a specialized microenvironment called the niche. Many different niche cell types support HSPCs, however how they interact and their ultrastructure has been difficult to define. Here we show that single endogenous HSPCs can be tracked by light microscopy, then identified by serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) at multiscale levels. Using the zebrafish larval kidney marrow (KM) niche as a model, we followed single fluorescently-labeled HSPCs by light sheet microscopy, then confirmed their exact location in a 3D SBEM dataset. We found a variety of different configurations of HSPCs and surrounding niche cells, suggesting there could be functional heterogeneity in sites of HSPC lodgement. Our approach also allowed us to identify dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dbh) positive ganglion cells as a previously uncharacterized functional cell type in the HSPC niche. By integrating multiple imaging modalities, we could resolve the ultrastructure of single rare cells deep in live tissue and define all contacts between an HSPC and its surrounding niche cell types.