1. Neuroscience
Download icon

Early alterations of social brain networks in young children with autism

  1. Holger Franz Sperdin  Is a corresponding author
  2. Ana Coito
  3. Nada Kojovic
  4. Tonia Anahi Rihs
  5. Reem Kais Jan
  6. Martina Franchini
  7. Gijs Plomp
  8. Serge Vulliemoz
  9. Stephan Eliez
  10. Christoph Martin Michel
  11. Marie Schaer
  1. University of Geneva, Switzerland
  2. University of Fribourg, Switzerland
  3. University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland
Research Article
Cite as: eLife 2018;7:e31670 doi: 10.7554/eLife.31670
7 figures, 2 tables and 1 additional file

Figures

Summed outflow of the largest drivers across frequencies.

(a) The summed outflow of the largest drivers across frequencies is illustrated for each group (TD, Left; ASD, Right). (b) Regions consistently showing large driving in both groups for theta and alpha. Summed outflows are represented as spheres: the larger the sphere, the higher the summed outflow. ROIs are displayed on an ICBM Average Brain, axial top view. See acronyms list in Table 2.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.31670.003
Summed outflow differences in the ASD group compared to their typically developing peers.

(a) On the left, the 6 ROIs with a statistically significant different summed outflow in the ASD group compared to their TD peers for the theta band. On the right, the 3 ROIs with a statistically significant different summed outflow in the ASD group compared to their TD peers for the alpha band. A red nod indicates increased driving, a blue nod indicates decreased driving. Corresponding ROIs are displayed on an ICBM Average Brain, with sagital, axial and corronal views. (b) Boxplots with the summed outflow values comparing each group for each significant ROI in the theta band. (c) Boxplots with the summed outflow values comparing each group for each significant ROI in the alpha band. The boxplots display the full range of variation of the summed outflows (from min to max), rectangles span the interquartile range and the median. See acronyms list in Table 2.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.31670.004
Figure 3 with 2 supplements
Region-to-region directed functional connectivity for the theta band (4–7 Hz) from each of the six significant ROIs represented as large red spheres.

Outflows are represented as arrows: the larger the arrow, the stronger the outflow. ROIs and connections are displayed on an ICBM Average Brain, axial and coronal views. See acronyms list in Table 2.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.31670.005
Figure 3—figure supplement 1
ORBsup.R seed (large red sphere) for the ASD group in theta band.

Boxplots with the outflow values comparing each group for each connection. Outflows are represented as arrows: the larger the arrow, the stronger the outflow. The boxplots display the full range of variation (from min to max) of the outflow values, rectangles span the interquartile range and the median. See acronyms list in Table 2.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.31670.006
Figure 3—figure supplement 2
ORBsup.R seed for the (large red sphere) for the TD group in theta band.

Boxplots with the outflow values comparing each group for each connection. Outflows are represented as arrows: the larger the arrow, the stronger the outflow. The boxplots display the full range of variation (from min to max) of the outflow values, rectangles span the interquartile range and the median. See acronyms list in Table 2.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.31670.007
Region-to-region directed functional connectivity for the alpha band (8–12 Hz) from each of the three significant ROIs, represented as large red spheres.

Outflows are represented as arrows: the larger the arrow, the stronger the outflow. ROIs and connections are displayed on an ICBM Average Brain, axial and coronal views. See acronyms list in Table 2.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.31670.008
Significant correlations after FDR correction between the summed outflow in theta for the ASD participants (represented as blue dots) and (a) standardized VABS-II scores, (b) PEP-3 standardized scores and (c) Proximity Index.

(d) Significant correlations after FDR correction between the summed outflow in alpha and PEP-3 standardized scores. TD summed outflow values are plotted on the Y axis in red. Corresponding ROI are displayed on an ICBM Average Brain, axial top view.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.31670.009
Exemplar single time frame of the normative gaze pattern for each group on one random time frame.

Each dot represents the gaze position for an individual participant. The face has been blurred on purpose to preserve anonymity but was fully visible for the participants during the experiment.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.31670.012
The general analysis strategy.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.31670.013

Tables

Table 1
Characteristics of Study Participants.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.31670.010
CharacteristicAutism spectrum disorderTypically developing
Gender ratio (M/F)16/213/5
Mean, SD, NMean, SD, NT valuedfP value
Age in years3.1, 0.8, 183.1, 0.9, 180.165340.87
ADOS CSS7.9, 1.6, 181.1, 0.47, 1817.87340.000
PEP-Cognitive verbal/pre-verbal67.78, 18.85, 1895.81, 7, 16−5.87320.000
PEP-Expressive language50.28, 27.49, 1892.94, 8.61, 16−6.24320.000
PEP-Receptive language60.06, 23.93, 1896.19, 6.17, 16−6.17320.000
PEP-Fine motor61.83, 23.59, 1888.81, 16.01, 16−3.85320.000
PEP-Gross motor59.33, 27.86, 1890.56, 7.66, 16−4.56320.000
PEP-Visual Motor Imitation56.11, 25.29, 1893.69, 6.93, 16−6.05320.000
VABS-II-Adaptive Behaviour Composite75.5, 10.73, 18105.28, 10.19, 18−8.53340.000
VABS-II-Communication76.5, 12.59, 18107.28, 8.16, 18−8.7340.000
VABS-II-Daily living skills79.94, 11.28, 18103.56, 9.28, 18−6.85340.000
VABS-II-Socialization74.67, 11.26, 18102.89, 6.98, 18−9.03340.000
VABS-II-Motor Skills83.56, 10.8, 18101.44, 12.15, 18−4.66340.000
VABS-II-receptive language10, 2.45, 1816.89, 2.32, 18−8.65340.000
VABS-II-expressive language10.11, 2.4, 1816.56, 1.5, 18−9.65340.000
VABS-II-gross motor skills13.83, 5.53, 1814.89, 1.78, 18−0.77340.449
VABS-II-fine motor skills12.06, 2.58, 1815.61, 2.45, 18−4.23340.000
VABS-II-interpersonal relationships10.06, 2.6, 1815.83, 2.26, 18−7.12340.000
VABS-II-play and leisure time10.33, 2.03, 1817, 1.68, 18−10.73340.000
Table 2
Acronyms Table
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.31670.011
1PreCG.LPrecentral Gyrus Left
2PreCG.RPrecentral Gyrus Right
3SFGdor.LFrontal Superior Left
4SFGdor.RFrontal Superior Right
5ORBsup.LFrontal Superior Orbital Left
6ORBsup.RFrontal Superior Orbital Right
7MFG.LFrontal Middle Left
8MFG.RFrontal Middle Right
9ORBmid.LFrontal Middle Orbital Left
10ORBmid.RFrontal Middle Orbital Right
11IFGoperc.LFrontal Inferior Operculum Left
12IFGoperc.RFrontal Inferior Operculum Right
13IFGtriang.LFrontal Inferior Triangularis Left
14IFGtriang.RFrontal Inferior Triangularis Right
15ORBinf.LFrontal Inferior Orbital Left
16ORBinf.RFrontal Inferior Orbital Right
17ROL.LRolandic Operculum Left
18ROL.RRolandic Operculum Right
19SMA.LSupplementary Motor Area Left
20SMA.RSupplementary Motor Area Left
21OLF.LOlfactory Left
22OLF.ROlfactory Right
23SFGmed.LFrontal Superior Medial Left
24SFGmed.RFrontal Superior Medial Right
25ORBsupmed.LFrontal Medial Orbital Left
26ORBsupmed.RFrontal Medial Orbital Right
27REC.LRectus Left
28REC.RRectus Right
29INS.LInsula Left
30INS.RInsula Right
31ACG.LCingulum Anterior Left
32ACG.RCingulum Anterior Right
33DCG.LCingulum Middle Left
34DCG.RCingulum Middle Right
35PCG.LCingulum Posterior Left
36PCG.RCingulum Posterior Right
37HIP.LHippocampus Left
38HIP.RHippocampus Right
39PHG.LParaHippocampal Left
40PHG.RParaHippocampal Right
41AMYG.LAmygdala Left
42AMYG.RAmygdala Right
43CAL.LCalcarine Left
44CAL.RCalcarine Right
45CUN.LCuneus Left
46CUN.RCuneus Right
47LING.LLingual Left
48LING.RLingual Right
49SOG.LOccipital Superior Left
50SOG.ROccipital Superior Right
51MOG.LOccipital Middle Left
52MOG.ROccipital Middle Right
53IOG.LOccipital Inferior Left
54IOG.ROccipital Inferior Right
55FFG.LFusiform Left
56FFG.RFusiform Right
57PoCG.LPostcentral Left
58PoCG.RPostcentral Right
59SPG.LParietal Superior Left
60SPG.RParietal Superior Right
61IPL.LParietal Inferior Left
62IPL.RParietal Inferior Right
63SMG.LSupraMarginal Left
64SMG.RSupraMarginal Right
65ANG.LAngular Left
66ANG.RAngular Right
67PCUN.LPrecuneus Left
68PCUN.RPrecuneus Right
69PCL.LParacentral Lobule Left
70PCL.RParacentral Lobule Right
71HES.LHeschl Left
72HES.RHeschl Right
73STG.LTemporal Superior Left
74STG.RTemporal Superior Right
75TPOsup.LTemporal Pole Superior Left
76TPOsup.RTemporal Pole Superior Right
77MTG.LTemporal Middle Left
78MTG.RTemporal Middle Right
79TPOmid.LTemporal Pole Middle Left
80TPOmid.RTemporal Pole Middle Right
81ITG.LTemporal Inferior Left
82ITG.RTemporal Inferior Right

Additional files

Download links

A two-part list of links to download the article, or parts of the article, in various formats.

Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)

Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)

Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)