In adult flies, the mushroom body (MB) Kenyon cells are responsible for the detection of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US), association of CS and US, and memory storage (Dubnau and Tully, 1998). The CS (odorant) signal is delivered by cholinergic projection neurons that cause a Ca2+ influx into Kenyon cells. The US (electric shock) signal is delivered by dopaminergic neurons that activate downstream G protein coupled receptors, triggering Gα (Busto et al., 2010). The adenylyl cyclase rutabaga (rut) can be activated by both Ca2+ and Gα and causes an increase in cAMP (Busto et al., 2010) which activates PKA and CREB through PKA mediated phosphorylation of CREB (Impey et al., 1999). dunce (dnc), a phosphodiesterase regulates cAMP levels (Byers et al., 1981). CREB is a key transcription factor for genes required for long-term memory formation (DeZazzo and Tully, 1995). In addition to the cAMP-PKA-CREB pathway, there are other kinases that have been implicated in memory formation. These include CamKII (Akalal et al., 2010), CASK (Gillespie and Hodge, 2013), msk (MAPK pathway) (Li et al., 2016; Philip et al., 2001; Skoulakis and Davis, 1996), ignorant (ign, S6kII) (Putz et al., 2004), wallenda (wnd) (Huang et al., 2012) and S6K (Fropf et al., 2013). aPKC has been shown to enhance 24 hr memory in Drosophila. However, it enhances 24 hr ARM, but not 24 hr LTM (Drier et al., 2002). Red: protein kinases that have been shown to be involved in learning/memory. Solid line: protein kinases that have been shown to phosphorylate CREBB directly (Horiuchi et al., 2004). Dashed line: There is no evidence to show these genes interact directly.