Mitochondrial NAD levels influence fuel selection, circadian rhythms, and cell survival under stress. It has alternately been argued that NAD in mammalian mitochondria arises from import of cytosolic nicotinamide (NAM), nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), or NAD itself. We provide evidence that murine and human mitochondria take up intact NAD. Isolated mitochondria preparations cannot make NAD from NAM, and while NAD is synthesized from NMN, it does not localize to the mitochondrial matrix or effectively support oxidative phosphorylation. Treating cells with nicotinamide riboside that is isotopically labeled on the nicotinamide and ribose moieties results in the appearance of doubly labeled NAD within mitochondria. Analogous experiments with doubly labeled nicotinic acid riboside (labeling cytosolic NAD without labeling NMN) demonstrate that NAD(H) is the imported species. Our results challenge the long-held view that the mitochondrial inner membrane is impermeable to pyridine nucleotides and suggest the existence of an unrecognized mammalian NAD (or NADH) transporter.
- Joseph A Baur
- Joseph A Baur
- Antonio Davila
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. No live animal work was performed, and animals that were sacrificed for mitochondrial isolation were euthanized according to protocols approved by the institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) of the University of Pennsylvania (protocol # 804892).
- Andrew Dillin, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, United States
© 2018, Davila et al.
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