(A) In the reaching task, the participants made reaching movements to touch the center line (among the three vertical lines) on a touch screen with their index fingers. They wore ‘occlusion’ goggles that turned opaque when the participant started to reach. This prevented them from seeing where their index finger touched the screen. In the observation task, with their occlusion goggles open, the participants were asked to observe the video of reaches made by an actor and report where the actor touched the screen. (B) Changes in the participants’ touch locations across the throwing sessions. The participant-averaged deviations from the center line along the x-axis were plotted by flipping the data from the left observing participants, such that the directions of the actor’s reaches observed by all participants in both the nPE and PE groups were in the positive ordinate (indicated by gray arrow). The data from the CON, nPE, and PE groups are plotted in black, blue, and red, respectively. The touch locations by the nPE group progressively deviated towards where the actor touched most frequently on the screen. In contrast, the touch locations by the PE group progressively deviated away from where the actor touched most frequently on the screen. The touch locations by the CON group did not change across sessions. Error bars indicate standard error.