1. Ecology
  2. Epidemiology and Global Health
Download icon

Personality links with lifespan in chimpanzees

  1. Drew M Altschul  Is a corresponding author
  2. William D Hopkins
  3. Elizabeth S Herrelko
  4. Miho Inoue-Murayama
  5. Tetsuro Matsuzawa
  6. James E King
  7. Stephen R Ross
  8. Alexander Weiss
  1. School of Philosophy, Psychology and Language Sciences, The University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
  2. Scottish Primate Research Group, United Kingdom
  3. Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, United Kingdom
  4. Georgia State University, United States
  5. Yerkes National Primate Research Center, United States
  6. National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution, United States
  7. University of Stirling, United Kingdom
  8. Kyoto University, Japan
  9. National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan
  10. Institute for Advanced Study, Kyoto University, Japan
  11. Japan Monkey Centre, Japan
  12. University of Arizona, United States
  13. Lincoln Park Zoo, United States
Research Article
Cite this article as: eLife 2018;7:e33781 doi: 10.7554/eLife.33781
3 figures, 1 table and 3 additional files

Figures

Survival curves of captive and wild chimpanzees.

Lines indicate survival probability of each group over the lifespan. The solid lines represent the captive population used in this study and the dashed line corresponds to a wild group (Bronikowski et al., 2011). The shaded areas indicated the 95% confidence region for reach group.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33781.003
Figure 2 with 6 supplements
Personality’s relationship with age and sex.

Each panel shows the personality scores of a specific dimension for all individuals in a scatterplot against age on the left, and on the right with bean plots showing the distribution of scores split by sex (females are on the left, males on the right). Relationships between age and each personality dimensions are illustrated in the figure supplements.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33781.004
Figure 2—figure supplement 1
Generalized additive model of dominance and age at personality rating.

The carpet and scatter plot present the distribution of observations over which the best fit smoothed regression line is plotted with the 95% confidence region.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33781.005
Figure 2—figure supplement 2
Generalized additive model of extraversion and age at personality rating.

The carpet and scatter plot present the distribution of observations over which the best fit smoothed regression line is plotted with the 95% confidence region.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33781.006
Figure 2—figure supplement 3
Generalized additive model of conscientiousness and age at personality rating.

The carpet and scatter plot present the distribution of observations over which the best fit smoothed regression line is plotted with the 95% confidence region.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33781.007
Figure 2—figure supplement 4
Generalized additive model of agreeableness and age at personality rating.

The carpet and scatter plot present the distribution of observations over which the best fit smoothed regression line is plotted with the 95% confidence region.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33781.008
Figure 2—figure supplement 5
Generalized additive model of neuroticism and age at personality rating.

The carpet and scatter plot present the distribution of observations over which the best fit smoothed regression line is plotted with the 95% confidence region.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33781.009
Figure 2—figure supplement 6
Generalized additive model of openness and age at personality rating.

The carpet and scatter plot present the distribution of observations over which the best fit smoothed regression line is plotted with the 95% confidence region.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33781.010
Conditional inference tree diagram indicating variables influencing survival.

Bottom panes indicate the survival curves of and number of chimpanzees in each sub-group. Sub-groups were split based on the growth of the tree and decision criteria are indicated below each node. Splits in numeric variables (e.g. agreeableness) are by standard deviations.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33781.011

Tables

Table 1
Weighted survival model estimates of personality and demographic variables related to longevity.

Values are model averaged parameter estimates and unconditional confidence intervals calculated from estimates shown in Supplementary Table 4.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33781.012
UnadjustedAdjusted for age
VariableHazard Ratio95% C.I.Hazard Ratio95% C.I.
Male (n = 216)
Wild-born1.40[0.68, 2.90]1.35[0.66, 2.74]
Agreeableness0.66[0.49, 0.89]0.61[0.42, 0.89]
Dominance0.98[0.74, 1.29]0.99[0.72, 1.37]
Extraversion1.04[0.71, 1.51]1.01[0.65, 1.57]
Conscientiousness1.11[0.78, 1.58]1.19[0.79, 1.81]
Neuroticism0.91[0.66, 1.25]0.93[0.66, 1.31]
Openness1.09[0.76, 1.55]1.06[0.78, 1.46]
Female (n = 322)
Wild-born1.16[0.72, 1.85]1.17[0.73, 1.87]
Agreeableness1.12[0.83, 1.50]1.24[0.84, 1.82]
Dominance1.04[0.83, 1.30]1.05[0.82, 1.35]
Extraversion1.15[0.80, 1.67]1.02[0.66, 1.57]
Conscientiousness1.01[0.76, 1.34]0.98[0.70, 1.38]
Neuroticism0.93[0.73, 1.17]0.93[0.72, 1.19]
Openness0.77[0.59, 0.99]0.82[0.66, 1.02]

Additional files

Supplementary file 1

Containing Tables S1 – S4.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33781.013
Source code 1

R code for data processing, plotting, and analyses.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33781.014
Transparent reporting form
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.33781.015

Download links

A two-part list of links to download the article, or parts of the article, in various formats.

Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)

Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)

Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)