Neurons in the hippocampus and adjacent brain areas show a large diversity in their tuning to location and head direction. The underlying circuit mechanisms are not resolved. In particular, it is unclear why certain cell types are selective to one spatial variable, but invariant to another. For example, place cells are typically invariant to head direction. We propose that all observed spatial tuning patterns - in both their selectivity and their invariance - arise from the same mechanism: Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity that is driven by the spatial tuning statistics of synaptic inputs. Using simulations and a mathematical analysis, we show that combined excitatory and inhibitory plasticity can lead to localized, grid-like or invariant activity. Combinations of different input statistics along different spatial dimensions reproduce all major spatial tuning patterns observed in rodents. The model is robust to changes in parameters, develops patterns on behavioral timescales and makes distinctive experimental predictions.
Grid cell - raw dataPublicly available.
- Henning Sprekeler
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- David Foster, University of California, Berkeley, United States
© 2018, Weber & Sprekeler
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The maintenance of items in working memory (WM) relies on a widespread network of cortical areas and hippocampus where synchronization between electrophysiological recordings reflects functional coupling. We investigated the direction of information flow between auditory cortex and hippocampus while participants heard and then mentally replayed strings of letters in WM by activating their phonological loop. We recorded local field potentials from the hippocampus, reconstructed beamforming sources of scalp EEG, and – additionally in four participants – recorded from subdural cortical electrodes. When analyzing Granger causality, the information flow was from auditory cortex to hippocampus with a peak in the [4 8] Hz range while participants heard the letters. This flow was subsequently reversed during maintenance while participants maintained the letters in memory. The functional interaction between hippocampus and the cortex and the reversal of information flow provide a physiological basis for the encoding of memory items and their active replay during maintenance.
Visually guided behaviors require the brain to transform ambiguous retinal images into object-level spatial representations and implement sensorimotor transformations. These processes are supported by the dorsal 'where' pathway. However, the specific functional contributions of areas along this pathway remain elusive due in part to methodological differences across studies. We previously showed that macaque caudal intraparietal (CIP) area neurons possess robust three-dimensional (3D) visual representations, carry choice- and saccade-related activity, and exhibit experience-dependent sensorimotor associations (Chang et al., 2020b). Here, we used a common experimental design to reveal parallel processing, hierarchical transformations, and the formation of sensorimotor associations along the 'where' pathway by extending the investigation to V3A, a major feedforward input to CIP. Higher-level 3D representations and choice-related activity were more prevalent in CIP than V3A. Both areas contained saccade-related activity that predicted the direction/timing of eye movements. Intriguingly, the time-course of saccade-related activity in CIP aligned with the temporally integrated V3A output. Sensorimotor associations between 3D orientation and saccade direction preferences were stronger in CIP than V3A, and moderated by choice signals in both areas. Together, the results explicate parallel representations, hierarchical transformations, and functional associations of visual and saccade-related signals at a key juncture in the 'where' pathway.