Model output expressed by pyramidal cell population firing rates using multiple parameter values. The varied parameters are indicated by the red circle in the circuit schematics. Each colored trace represents the average firing rate (six trials each with four different odors). The legend, with corresponding colors, indicates the maximum values of EPSPs onto pyramidal cells and FBINs. Black traces show results using default parameter values. (A) Pyramidal cell population activity with different recurrent collateral couplings. Peak EPSPs onto pyramidal cells of 0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.21, 0.32 and 0.42 mV and onto FBINs, 0, 0.13, 0.21, 0.4, 0.85, 1.3 and 1.7 mV. Strong recurrent excitation leads to a stronger initial response but lower activity later in the sniff. Weaker recurrent excitation leads to lower initial response followed by higher and more variable activity. (Bi) Pyramidal cell population activity with different strength recurrent connections onto pyramidal cells only. Peak EPSPs of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.13, 0.17 and 0.32 mV. Stronger recurrent connections between pyramidal cells lead to higher and earlier initial response peaks. Even stronger connections lead to runaway pyramidal activity (magenta trace, see also Figure 5—figure supplement 1D). (Bii) Pyramidal cell population activity with different recurrent connection strengths onto FBINs only. Peak EPSPs of 0.13, 0.21, 0.34, 0.4, 0.85 and 1.3 mV. Stronger recurrent connections from pyramidal cells onto FBINs lead to lower, yet earlier initial response peaks. Very weak connections lead to runaway activity (purple trace).