Naive B cells co-express two BCR isotypes, IgM and IgD, with identical antigen-binding domains but distinct constant regions. IgM but not IgD is downregulated on autoreactive B cells. Because these isotypes are presumed to be redundant, it is unknown how this could impose tolerance. We introduced the Nur77-eGFP reporter of BCR signaling into mice that express each BCR isotype alone. Despite signaling strongly in vitro, IgD is less sensitive than IgM to endogenous antigen in vivo and developmental fate decisions are skewed accordingly. IgD-only Lyn-/- B cells cannot generate autoantibodies and short-lived plasma cells (SLPCs) in vivo, a fate thought to be driven by intense BCR signaling induced by endogenous antigens. Similarly, IgD-only B cells generate normal germinal center, but impaired IgG1+ SLPC responses to T-dependent immunization. We propose a role for IgD in maintaining the quiescence of autoreactive B cells and restricting their differentiation into autoantibody secreting cells.
- Julie Zikherman
- Mark Noviski
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols of the University of California, San Francisco. The protocol was approved by the IACUC committee of the University of California, San Francisco (Protocol number: AN171020-01).
- Facundo D Batista, Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard, United States
© 2018, Noviski et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is an autoinflammatory syndrome caused by mutations of NLRP3 gene encoding cryopyrin. Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), the mildest form of CAPS, is characterized by cold-induced inflammation induced by the overproduction of IL-1β. However, the molecular mechanism of how mutated NLRP3 causes inflammasome activation in CAPS remains unclear. Here, we found that CAPS-associated NLRP3 mutants form cryo-sensitive aggregates that function as a scaffold for inflammasome activation. Cold exposure promoted inflammasome assembly and subsequent IL-1β release triggered by mutated NLRP3. While K+ efflux was dispensable, Ca2+ was necessary for mutated NLRP3-mediated inflammasome assembly. Notably, Ca2+ influx was induced during mutated NLRP3-mediated inflammasome assembly. Furthermore, caspase-1 inhibition prevented Ca2+ influx and inflammasome assembly induced by the mutated NLRP3, suggesting a feed-forward Ca2+ influx loop triggered by mutated NLRP3. Thus, the mutated NLRP3 forms cryo-sensitive aggregates to promote inflammasome assembly distinct from canonical NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
Mitotically stable random monoallelic gene expression (RME) is documented for a small percentage of autosomal genes. We developed an in vivo genetic model to study the role of enhancers in RME using high-resolution single-cell analysis of natural killer (NK) cell receptor gene expression and enhancer deletions in the mouse germline. Enhancers of the RME NK receptor genes were accessible and enriched in H3K27ac on silent and active alleles alike in cells sorted according to allelic expression status, suggesting enhancer activation and gene expression status can be decoupled. In genes with multiple enhancers, enhancer deletion reduced gene expression frequency, in one instance converting the universally expressed gene encoding NKG2D into an RME gene, recapitulating all aspects of natural RME including mitotic stability of both the active and silent states. The results support the binary model of enhancer action, and suggest that RME is a consequence of general properties of gene regulation by enhancers rather than an RME-specific epigenetic program. Therefore, many and perhaps all genes may be subject to some degree of RME. Surprisingly, this was borne out by analysis of several genes that define different major hematopoietic lineages, that were previously thought to be universally expressed within those lineages: the genes encoding NKG2D, CD45, CD8α, and Thy-1. We propose that intrinsically probabilistic gene allele regulation is a general property of enhancer-controlled gene expression, with previously documented RME representing an extreme on a broad continuum.