Type III protein secretion systems (T3SS) are encoded by several pathogenic or symbiotic bacteria. The central component of this nanomachine is the needle complex. Here we show in a Salmonella Typhimurium T3SS that assembly of the needle filament of this structure requires OrgC, a protein encoded within the T3SS gene cluster. Absence of OrgC results in significantly reduced number of needle substructures but does not affect needle length. We show that OrgC is secreted by the T3SS and that exogenous addition of OrgC can complement a ∆orgC mutation. We also show that OrgC interacts with the needle filament subunit PrgI and accelerates its polymerization into filaments in vitro. The structure of OrgC shows a novel fold with a shared topology with a domain from flagellar capping proteins. These findings identify a novel component of T3SS and provide new insight into the assembly of the type III secretion machine.
The 20 PDB coordinates, the assigned chemical shifts, and the restraints used in the NMR structure determination were deposited at the RCSB Protein Data Bank with the accession code PDB ID 6CJD and BMRB ID 30417. The above data were used to generate Fig. 7, Figure 6-figure supplement 1, Figure 7-figure supplement 1, 2, 3, and 4, and Supplementary File 1.
NMR NMR structure determination of OrgCPublicly available at the RCSB Protein Data Bank (accession no. 6CJD).
- Jorge E Galan
- Roberto N De Guzman
- Mason C Wilkinson
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Gisela Storz, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, United States
© 2018, Kato et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum synthesizes significant amounts of phospholipids to meet the demands of replication within red blood cells. De novo phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis via the Kennedy pathway is essential, requiring choline that is primarily sourced from host serum lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC). LysoPC also acts as an environmental sensor to regulate parasite sexual differentiation. Despite these critical roles for host lysoPC, the enzyme(s) involved in its breakdown to free choline for PC synthesis are unknown. Here, we show that a parasite glycerophosphodiesterase (PfGDPD) is indispensable for blood stage parasite proliferation. Exogenous choline rescues growth of PfGDPD-null parasites, directly linking PfGDPD function to choline incorporation. Genetic ablation of PfGDPD reduces choline uptake from lysoPC, resulting in depletion of several PC species in the parasite, whilst purified PfGDPD releases choline from glycerophosphocholine in vitro. Our results identify PfGDPD as a choline-releasing glycerophosphodiesterase that mediates a critical step in PC biosynthesis and parasite survival.
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