(A–B) Compositional dynamics of most abundant clusters during and after treatment for control (A) and treated (B) mice (n = 9–10 per treatment). Three groups (Typical, Staph/Strep, Enterobacteriaceae) differed significantly between groups (p<0.05, linear mixed effects model likelihood tests) during treatment and two (Enterobacteriaceae, Akkermansia) during recovery. (C) Redox potential measured in freshly voided feces of singly housed mice during the recovery period (n = 5 per treatment) was lower than treated mice initially (p<0.05, Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U tests). (D) Repeated measures correlation was significant (p=0.02) between change in Enterobacteriaceae abundance and change in redox potential during the first three days of post-antibiotic recovery (n = 64). (E) Days until there is no significant difference (p>0.05 Bonferroni-corrected Mann Whitney U test) between groups of control and treated animals for redox and Enterobacteriaceae abundance, under either singly- housed or co-housed settings. Red bars indicate treatment duration (A–B). Red arrows indicate the last antibiotic dose; day six measurements are more than 24 hr after the last dose (C). Data are shown as means ± SD. Post-hoc test results for individual time points (* indicates p<0.05 Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U test) are included for visualization purposes.