Optical detection of three modes of endocytosis at hippocampal synapses

  1. Natali L Chanaday
  2. Ege T Kavalali  Is a corresponding author
  1. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, United States

Abstract

Coupling of synaptic vesicle fusion and retrieval constitutes a core mechanism ensuring maintenance of presynaptic function. Recent studies using fast-freeze electron microscopy and capacitance measurements reported an ultrafast mode of endocytosis operating at physiological temperatures. Here, using rat hippocampal neurons, we optically monitored single synaptic vesicle endocytosis with high time resolution using the vesicular glutamate transporter, synaptophysin and the V0a1 subunit of the vacuolar ATPase as probes. In this setting, we could distinguish three components of retrieval operating at ultrafast (~150-250 ms, ~20% of events), fast (~5-12s, ~40% of events) and ultraslow speeds (>20s, ~40% of events). While increasing Ca2+ slowed the fast events, increasing temperature accelerated their time course. In contrast, the kinetics of ultrafast events were only mildly affected by these manipulations. These results suggest that synaptic vesicle proteins can be retrieved with ultrafast kinetics, although a majority of evoked fusion events are coupled to slower retrieval mechanisms.

Data availability

All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files as histograms or box plots.

Article and author information

Author details

  1. Natali L Chanaday

    Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
  2. Ege T Kavalali

    Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States
    For correspondence
    ege.kavalali@utsouthwestern.edu
    Competing interests
    The authors declare that no competing interests exist.
    ORCID icon "This ORCID iD identifies the author of this article:" 0000-0003-1777-227X

Funding

National Institute of Mental Health (MH066198)

  • Ege T Kavalali

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.

Ethics

Animal experimentation: All animal protocols were approved by the Institutional Care and Use Committee at UT Southwestern Medical Center. The work presented in this study is covered by the Animal Protocol Numbers APN 2016-101416.

Reviewing Editor

  1. Axel T Brunger, Stanford University Medical Center, United States

Publication history

  1. Received: February 21, 2018
  2. Accepted: April 20, 2018
  3. Accepted Manuscript published: April 23, 2018 (version 1)
  4. Version of Record published: May 18, 2018 (version 2)

Copyright

© 2018, Chanaday & Kavalali

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.

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  1. Natali L Chanaday
  2. Ege T Kavalali
(2018)
Optical detection of three modes of endocytosis at hippocampal synapses
eLife 7:e36097.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.36097

Further reading

    1. Developmental Biology
    2. Neuroscience
    Emily L Heckman, Chris Q Doe
    Research Advance

    The organization of neural circuits determines nervous system function. Variability can arise during neural circuit development (e.g. neurite morphology, axon/dendrite position). To ensure robust nervous system function, mechanisms must exist to accommodate variation in neurite positioning during circuit formation. Previously we developed a model system in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord to conditionally induce positional variability of a proprioceptive sensory axon terminal, and used this model to show that when we altered the presynaptic position of the sensory neuron, its major postsynaptic interneuron partner modified its dendritic arbor to match the presynaptic contact, resulting in functional synaptic input (Sales et al., 2019). Here we investigate the cellular mechanisms by which the interneuron dendrites detect and match variation in presynaptic partner location and input strength. We manipulate the presynaptic sensory neuron by (a) ablation; (b) silencing or activation; or (c) altering its location in the neuropil. From these experiments we conclude that there are two opposing mechanisms used to establish functional connectivity in the face of presynaptic variability: presynaptic contact stimulates dendrite outgrowth locally, whereas presynaptic activity inhibits postsynaptic dendrite outgrowth globally. These mechanisms are only active during an early larval critical period for structural plasticity. Collectively, our data provide new insights into dendrite development, identifying mechanisms that allow dendrites to flexibly respond to developmental variability in presynaptic location and input strength.

    1. Epidemiology and Global Health
    2. Neuroscience
    Lorenza Dall'Aglio, Hannah H Kim ... Henning Tiemeier
    Research Article Updated

    Background:

    Associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and brain morphology have been reported, although with several inconsistencies. These may partly stem from confounding bias, which could distort associations and limit generalizability. We examined how associations between brain morphology and ADHD symptoms change with adjustments for potential confounders typically overlooked in the literature (aim 1), and for the intelligence quotient (IQ) and head motion, which are generally corrected for but play ambiguous roles (aim 2).

    Methods:

    Participants were 10-year-old children from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (N = 7722) and Generation R (N = 2531) Studies. Cortical area, volume, and thickness were measured with MRI and ADHD symptoms with the Child Behavior Checklist. Surface-based cross-sectional analyses were run.

    Results:

    ADHD symptoms related to widespread cortical regions when solely adjusting for demographic factors. Additional adjustments for socioeconomic and maternal behavioral confounders (aim 1) generally attenuated associations, as cluster sizes halved and effect sizes substantially reduced. Cluster sizes further changed when including IQ and head motion (aim 2), however, we argue that adjustments might have introduced bias.

    Conclusions:

    Careful confounder selection and control can help identify more robust and specific regions of associations for ADHD symptoms, across two cohorts. We provided guidance to minimizing confounding bias in psychiatric neuroimaging.

    Funding:

    Authors are supported by an NWO-VICI grant (NWO-ZonMW: 016.VICI.170.200 to HT) for HT, LDA, SL, and the Sophia Foundation S18-20, and Erasmus University and Erasmus MC Fellowship for RLM.