Polarised mRNA transport is a prevalent mechanism for spatial control of protein synthesis. However, the composition of transported ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) and the regulation of their movement are poorly understood. We have reconstituted microtubule minus end-directed transport of mRNAs using purified components. A Bicaudal-D (BicD) adaptor protein and the RNA-binding protein Egalitarian (Egl) are sufficient for long-distance mRNA transport by the dynein motor and its accessory complex dynactin, thus defining a minimal transport-competent RNP. Unexpectedly, the RNA is required for robust activation of dynein motility. We show that a cis-acting RNA localisation signal promotes the interaction of Egl with BicD, which licenses the latter protein to recruit dynein and dynactin. Our data support a model for BicD activation based on RNA-induced occupancy of two Egl-binding sites on the BicD dimer. Scaffolding of adaptor protein assemblies by cargoes is an attractive mechanism for regulating intracellular transport.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Mark A McClintock
- Carly I Dix
- Christopher M Johnson
- Stephen H McLaughlin
- Rory J Maizels
- Ha Thi Hoang
- Simon L Bullock
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Andrea Musacchio, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology, Germany
© 2018, McClintock et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Single molecule imaging has shown that part of actin disassembles within a few seconds after incorporation into the dendritic filament network in lamellipodia, suggestive of frequent destabilization near barbed ends. To investigate the mechanisms behind network remodeling, we created a stochastic model with polymerization, depolymerization, branching, capping, uncapping, severing, oligomer diffusion, annealing, and debranching. We find that filament severing, enhanced near barbed ends, can explain the single molecule actin lifetime distribution, if oligomer fragments reanneal to free ends with rate constants comparable to in vitro measurements. The same mechanism leads to actin networks consistent with measured filament, end, and branch concentrations. These networks undergo structural remodeling, leading to longer filaments away from the leading edge, at the +/-35° orientation pattern. Imaging of actin speckle lifetimes at sub-second resolution verifies frequent disassembly of newly-assembled actin. We thus propose a unified mechanism that fits a diverse set of basic lamellipodia phenomenology.
Spermatogenesis is a highly specialized differentiation process driven by a dynamic gene expression program and ending with the production of mature spermatozoa. Whereas hundreds of genes are known to be essential for male germline proliferation and differentiation, the contribution of several genes remains uncharacterized. The predominant expression of the latest globin family member, androglobin (Adgb), in mammalian testis tissue prompted us to assess its physiological function in spermatogenesis. Adgb knockout mice display male infertility, reduced testis weight, impaired maturation of elongating spermatids, abnormal sperm shape, and ultrastructural defects in microtubule and mitochondrial organization. Epididymal sperm from Adgb knockout animals display multiple flagellar malformations including coiled, bifid or shortened flagella, and erratic acrosomal development. Following immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we could identify septin 10 (Sept10) as interactor of Adgb. The Sept10-Adgb interaction was confirmed both in vivo using testis lysates and in vitro by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Furthermore, the absence of Adgb leads to mislocalization of Sept10 in sperm, indicating defective manchette and sperm annulus formation. Finally, in vitro data suggest that Adgb contributes to Sept10 proteolysis in a calmodulin-dependent manner. Collectively, our results provide evidence that Adgb is essential for murine spermatogenesis and further suggest that Adgb is required for sperm head shaping via the manchette and proper flagellum formation.