Centrioles are cylindrical assemblies comprised of 9 singlet, doublet, or triplet microtubules, essential for the formation of motile and sensory cilia. While the structure of the cilium is being defined at increasing resolution, centriolar structure remains poorly understood. Here, we used electron cryo-tomography to determine the structure of mammalian (triplet) and Drosophila (doublet) centrioles. Mammalian centrioles have two distinct domains: a 200 nm proximal core region connected by A-C linkers, and a distal domain where the C-tubule is incomplete and a pair of novel linkages stabilize the assembly producing a geometry more closely resembling the ciliary axoneme. Drosophila centrioles resemble the mammalian core, but with their doublet microtubules linked through the A tubules. The commonality of core-region length, and the abrupt transition in mammalian centrioles, suggests a conserved length-setting mechanism. The unexpected linker diversity suggests how unique centriolar architectures arise in different tissues and organisms.
Average maps have been submitted to the Electron Microscopy Database (EMDB)
- Ronald D Vale
- David A Agard
- David A Agard
- David A Agard
- Ronald D Vale
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Jordan W Raff, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
© 2018, Greenan et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Proliferating cells undergo metabolic changes in synchrony with cell cycle progression and cell division. Mitochondria provide fuel, metabolites, and ATP during different phases of the cell cycle, however it is not completely understood how mitochondrial function and the cell cycle are coordinated. CLUH (clustered mitochondria homolog) is a post-transcriptional regulator of mRNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation and several metabolic pathways. Here, we show a role of CLUH in regulating the expression of astrin, which is involved in metaphase to anaphase progression, centrosome integrity, and mTORC1 inhibition. We find that CLUH binds both the SPAG5 mRNA and its product astrin, and controls the synthesis and the stability of the full-length astrin-1 isoform. We show that CLUH interacts with astrin-1 specifically during interphase. Astrin-depleted cells show mTORC1 hyperactivation and enhanced anabolism. On the other hand, cells lacking CLUH show decreased astrin levels and increased mTORC1 signaling, but cannot sustain anaplerotic and anabolic pathways. In absence of CLUH, cells fail to grow during G1, and progress faster through the cell cycle, indicating dysregulated matching of growth, metabolism, and cell cycling. Our data reveal a role of CLUH in coupling growth signaling pathways and mitochondrial metabolism with cell cycle progression.
De novo limb regeneration after amputation is restricted in mammals to the distal digit tip. Central to this regenerative process is the blastema, a heterogeneous population of lineage-restricted, dedifferentiated cells that ultimately orchestrates regeneration of the amputated bone and surrounding soft tissue. To investigate skeletal regeneration, we made use of spatial transcriptomics to characterize the transcriptional profile specifically within the blastema. Using this technique, we generated a gene signature with high specificity for the blastema in both our spatial data, as well as other previously published single-cell RNA-sequencing transcriptomic studies. To elucidate potential mechanisms distinguishing regenerative from non-regenerative healing, we applied spatial transcriptomics to an aging model. Consistent with other forms of repair, our digit amputation mouse model showed a significant impairment in regeneration in aged mice. Contrasting young and aged mice, spatial analysis revealed a metabolic shift in aged blastema associated with an increased bioenergetic requirement. This enhanced metabolic turnover was associated with increased hypoxia and angiogenic signaling, leading to excessive vascularization and altered regenerated bone architecture in aged mice. Administration of the metabolite oxaloacetate decreased the oxygen consumption rate of the aged blastema and increased WNT signaling, leading to enhanced in vivo bone regeneration. Thus, targeting cell metabolism may be a promising strategy to mitigate aging-induced declines in tissue regeneration.