The light chains (KLCs) of the heterotetrameric microtubule motor kinesin-1, that bind to cargo adaptor proteins and regulate its activity, have a capacity to recognize short peptides via their tetratricopeptide repeat domains (KLCTPR). Here, using X-ray crystallography, we show how kinesin-1 recognizes a novel class of adaptor motifs that we call 'Y-acidic' (tyrosine flanked by acidic residues), in a KLC-isoform specific manner. Binding specificities of Y-acidic motifs (present in JIP1 and in TorsinA) to KLC1TPR are distinct from those utilized for the recognition of W-acidic motifs found in adaptors that are KLC- isoform non-selective. However, a partial overlap on their receptor binding sites implies that adaptors relying on Y-acidic and W-acidic motifs must act independently. We propose a model to explain why these two classes of motifs that bind to the concave surface of KLCTPR with similar low micromolar affinity can exhibit different capacities to promote kinesin-1 activity.
Diffraction data and coordinates are publicly available in PDB under the accession codes 6FUZ and 6FV0
- Soi Bui
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Samara L Reck-Peterson, University of California, San Diego, United States
© 2018, Pernigo et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Calcium ion movements between cellular stores and the cytosol govern muscle contraction, the most energy-consuming function in mammals, which confers skeletal myofibers a pivotal role in glycemia regulation. Chronic myoplasmic calcium elevation (“calcium stress”), found in malignant hyperthermia-susceptible (MHS) patients and multiple myopathies, has been suggested to underlie the progression from hyperglycemia to insulin resistance. What drives such progression remains elusive. We find that muscle cells derived from MHS patients have increased content of an activated fragment of GSK3β — a specialized kinase that inhibits glycogen synthase, impairing glucose utilization and delineating a path to hyperglycemia. We also find decreased content of junctophilin1, an essential structural protein that colocalizes in the couplon with the voltage-sensing CaV1.1, the calcium channel RyR1 and calpain1, accompanied by an increase in a 44 kDa junctophilin1 fragment (JPh44) that moves into nuclei. We trace these changes to activated proteolysis by calpain1, secondary to increased myoplasmic calcium. We demonstrate that a JPh44-like construct induces transcriptional changes predictive of increased glucose utilization in myoblasts, including less transcription and translation of GSK3β and decreased transcription of proteins that reduce utilization of glucose. These effects reveal a stress-adaptive response, mediated by the novel regulator of transcription JPh44.
The lissencephaly 1 protein, LIS1, is mutated in type-1 lissencephaly and is a key regulator of cytoplasmic dynein-1. At a molecular level, current models propose that LIS1 activates dynein by relieving its autoinhibited form. Previously we reported a 3.1 Å structure of yeast dynein bound to Pac1, the yeast homologue of LIS1, which revealed the details of their interactions (Gillies et al., 2022). Based on this structure, we made mutations that disrupted these interactions and showed that they were required for dynein’s function in vivo in yeast. We also used our yeast dynein-Pac1 structure to design mutations in human dynein to probe the role of LIS1 in promoting the assembly of active dynein complexes. These mutations had relatively mild effects on dynein activation, suggesting that there may be differences in how dynein and Pac1/LIS1 interact between yeast and humans. Here, we report cryo-EM structures of human dynein-LIS1 complexes. Our new structures reveal the differences between the yeast and human systems, provide a blueprint to disrupt the human dynein-LIS1 interactions more accurately, and map type-1 lissencephaly disease mutations, as well as mutations in dynein linked to malformations of cortical development/intellectual disability, in the context of the dynein-LIS1 complex.