Brief (2-3d) monocular deprivation (MD) during the critical period induces a profound loss of responsiveness within binocular (V1b) and monocular (V1m) regions of rodent primary visual cortex. This has largely been ascribed to long-term depression (LTD) at thalamocortical synapses, while a contribution from intracortical inhibition has been controversial. Here we used optogenetics to isolate and measure feedforward thalamocortical and feedback intracortical excitation-inhibition (E-I) ratios following brief MD. Despite depression at thalamocortical synapses, thalamocortical E-I ratio was unaffected in V1b and shifted toward excitation in V1m, indicating that thalamocortical excitation was not effectively reduced. In contrast, feedback intracortical E-I ratio was shifted toward inhibition in V1m, and a computational model demonstrated that these opposing shifts produced an overall suppression of layer 4 excitability. Thus, feedforward and feedback E-I ratios can be independently tuned by visual experience, and enhanced feedback inhibition is the primary driving force behind loss of visual responsiveness.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Individual data points are plotted over bar graphs of means +/- SEM for each figure.
- Nathaniel J Miska
- Nathaniel J Miska
- Gina G Turrigiano
- Julijana Gjorgjieva
- Gina G Turrigiano
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved Brandeis University institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#15005 and #18002). All surgery was performed under ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine anesthesia and included sufficient post-operative analgesia to minimize any animal suffering.
- Julie A Kauer, Brown University, United States
© 2018, Miska et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The presynaptic protein α-synuclein (αSyn) has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In PD, the amygdala is prone to develop insoluble αSyn aggregates, and it has been suggested that circuit dysfunction involving the amygdala contributes to the psychiatric symptoms. Yet, how αSyn aggregates affect amygdala function is unknown. In this study, we examined αSyn in glutamatergic axon terminals and the impact of its aggregation on glutamatergic transmission in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). We found that αSyn is primarily present in the vesicular glutamate transporter 1-expressing (vGluT1+) terminals in mouse BLA, which is consistent with higher levels of αSyn expression in vGluT1+ glutamatergic neurons in the cerebral cortex relative to the vGluT2+ glutamatergic neurons in the thalamus. We found that αSyn aggregation selectively decreased the cortico-BLA, but not the thalamo-BLA, transmission; and that cortico-BLA synapses displayed enhanced short-term depression upon repetitive stimulation. In addition, using confocal microscopy, we found that vGluT1+ axon terminals exhibited decreased levels of soluble αSyn, which suggests that lower levels of soluble αSyn might underlie the enhanced short-term depression of cortico-BLA synapses. In agreement with this idea, we found that cortico-BLA synaptic depression was also enhanced in αSyn knockout mice. In conclusion, both basal and dynamic cortico-BLA transmission were disrupted by abnormal aggregation of αSyn and these changes might be relevant to the perturbed cortical control of the amygdala that has been suggested to play a role in psychiatric symptoms in PD.
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