1. Evolutionary Biology
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A biological switching valve evolved in the female of a sex-role reversed cave insect to receive multiple seminal packages

  1. Kazunori Yoshizawa  Is a corresponding author
  2. Yoshitaka Kamimura
  3. Charles Lienhard
  4. Rodrigo L Ferreira
  5. Alexander Blanke
  1. Hokkaido University, Japan
  2. Keio University, Japan
  3. Natural History Museum of Geneva, Switzerland
  4. Federal University of Lavras, Brazil
  5. University of Cologne, Köln
  6. University of Hull, United Kingdom
Research Article
Cite this article as: eLife 2018;7:e39563 doi: 10.7554/eLife.39563
2 figures, 1 video, 2 tables, 1 data set and 1 additional file

Figures

Morphology of the spermatheca and spermathecal plate of Neotrogla.

(A) Whole abdomen of a virgin female showing the location of the mating system. T8 and 9 indicate tergites 8 and 9. (B) Light microscopy photograph of the spermathecal plate with a single seminal capsule. (C) CLSM image of the spermathecal plate. (D) 3D segmentation of the spermathecal plate with no seminal capsule. Dotted line indicates the section plane shown in F and G. (E) 3D segmentation of the spermathecal plate with two seminal capsules and showing seminal flow. (F) Attachment points for the seminal capsules in the virgin female. (G) The base of two seminal capsules in different stages of connection to the spermathecal plate (corresponding to the two seminal capsules in Figure 1E).

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.39563.003
Morphology of the closure element (CE) and its associated structures.

(A) Muscle attachment to CE. (B) 3D segmentation of Figure 2A. (C) Detail of CE. (D) CLSM image of CE and neighboring structures. (E) Schematic illustration of the function of the switching valve system in closed (left) and opened (right) conditions.

https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.39563.006

Videos

Video 1
3D segmentation of the spermatheca and two seminal capsules attached to the spermathecal plate (see Figure 1E).
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.39563.005

Tables

Table 1
Valve terminology used in the text
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.39563.004
ActuatorDevice used to operate a valve using electric,
pneumatic or hydraulic means
BodyThe principal pressure-containing part of a valve in
which the closure element and seats are located
Closure element (CE)The moving part of a valve, positioned in the flow
stream, that controls the flow through the valve,
for example wedge, plug, clapper, ball
ControllerA device that directs the flow of a valve
End connectionThe type of connection supplied on the ends of a
valve that allows it to be connected to piping — may
be a welded end, flanged end, threaded or socket
weld
Pennation angleThe oblique attachment of single muscle fascicles to
the CE. It was measured as the angle between the
outermost fascicles in a given muscle bundle
Table 2
Measurements of each component of the spermathecal plate.
https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.39563.007
ObjectPennation angleAttachment area of muscle [cm2]Muscle strength [mN]Length [mm]Volume [µm3]Mass [µg]
Muscle m134.160.00001990.65620.1
Muscle m230.180.00001910.63190.08
Muscle m315.590.00000230.07580.09
Muscle m444.550.00001330.43740.09
Muscle m512.260.00000330.10960.09
Muscle m632.750.00000730.23940.11
Sum of muscle strength2.1503
Closure element0.03
Spermathecal pouch18474437790.0021246
Body sclerite 11997093000.0002297
Body sclerite 21014344100.0001166

Data availability

Scanned images of Neotrogla brasiliensis have been deposited to FigShare and are available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6741857.

The following data sets were generated
  1. 1

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